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Eden Thou Was in the Garden of God

The Lord God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden; and there He placed the man whom He had formed. Out of the ground the Lord God caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.Now a river flowed out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it divided and became four rivers. The name of the first is Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. The gold of that land is good; the bdellium and the onyx stone are there. The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush. The name of the third river is Tigris; it flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. Genesis 2:8

 ויטע יהוה אלהים גן בעדן מקדם וישם שם את האדם אשר יצר׃
The Lord God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden; and there He placed the man whom He had formed.Ezekiel 28:13
 בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה מסכתך אדם פטדה ויהלם תרשיש שהם וישפה ספיר נפך וברקת וזהב מלאכת תפיך
ונקביך בך ביום הבראך כוננו׃
“You were in Eden, the garden of God;
Every precious stone was your covering:
The ruby, the topaz and the diamond;
The beryl, the onyx and the jasper;
The lapis lazuli, the turquoise and the emerald;
And the gold, the workmanship of your settings and sockets,
Was in you.
On the day that you were created
They were prepared.
This documentary series is also highly recommended for further understanding of this topic.
Alexander’s Lost World is a 6 x 60” series coproduced with David Adams Films and Sky Vision. Following the course of the River Oxus (Amu Darya) for the first time, Adams takes viewers on an extraordinary 1,500-mile (2400 km) journey through war-torn Afghanistan and Central Asia.
The Ancient Greeks have long been credited for bringing ‘civilization’ to the East. In fact it appears to be the other way round. Alexander the Great discovered a highly developed civilization (a lost world) that pre-dated even the Persians.
As Adams unravels the mysteries of the Oxus Civilizations, its great fortress cities are dramatically recreated in stunning CGI. Traveling through the most remote regions of Afghanistan unarmed, Adams and his Cameraman live as everyday Afghans gaining a most unique insight into the people and our shared heritage.
Source material is quoted as is and does not represent our conclusions regarding some of the correct locations which is further clarified in the video below.

These are the show notes which further explain the video below from our broadcast on "The Bands of Time" for "Thou Was in the Garden of God” Watch the video to avoid any confusion. Thank You.
Overview of all of the Locations Locking in the location of Eden in the video below.


The name of the first is Pishon; it flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold
Herat dates back to ancient times, but its exact age remains unknown. During the period of the Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550-330 BC), the surrounding district was known as Hariva (in Old Persian), and in classical sources the region was correspondingly known as Aria (Areia). In the Zoroastrian Avesta, the district is mentioned as Haroiva. The name of the district and its main town is derived from that of the chief river of the region, the Herey River (Old Dari Hereyrud, "Silken Water"), which traverses the district and passes some 5 km (3.1 mi) south of modern Herāt. Herey is mentioned in Sanskrit as yellow or golden color equivalent to Persian "Zard" meaning Gold (yellow). The naming of a region and its principal town after the main river is a common feature in this part of the world—compare the adjoining districts/rivers/towns of Arachosia and Bactria.

Hariva (Havilah)

Field Museum of Natural History, 1919

The Serpent The Eagle The Lion & The Disk, Nov 12, 2012 - History - 480 pages
Page 293


The name of the second river is Gihon; it flows around the whole land of Cush.

An Introduction to the Study of Grecian and Roman Geography, Volume 614

George Long, Robley Dunglison F. Carr & Company, 1829
Bactriana joined Aria on the northern side and formed_one of the richest satrapies: it corresponds to the modern Baleh, and belongs to the kingdom of the Afghauns or Caubulistan. The river Oxus, Gihon, separated the province of Bactriana from Sogdiana. Its proximity to northern India, and the possession of a large river with fertile lands, made it, in very remote ages, the centre of Asiatic commerce, and the point of union for all the natives of this vast continent. The capital was Bactra on a branch of the Oxus; Zariaspa, which is sometimes supposed to be a different name for the same city, was probably another town. The modern Baleh carries on a considerable trade with India, Persia, and other countries. The satraps of this rich province were often tempted to declare themselves independent: under the Greeks it became a powerful state. with very extended but unknown limits. The investigation of the Greek empire of Bactriana is a curi ous subject, which allows much room for conjecture.
A province called Margiana, between Parthia and Bactria, is mentioned by Strabon ; but it belongs to a later period than that of the Persians.

Sogdiana, beyond the Oxus, was the most northern Persian pro vince ; its northern boundary was the Jaxartes, now the Sirr. Both the Oxus and Jaxartes, according to Strabon, flow into the Caspian: at present they terminate in the saltish lake Aral, not mentioned by the antient geographers. The sandy steppe, between the Caspian and the Aral lake, is said to exhibit indications of a former union between the two waters: but it is more probable that Strabon was ignorant of the termination of the great rivers the Oxus and Jaxartes. He supposed the Caspian to be connected with the northern ocean, though Herodotus, long before him, had stated, pretty accurately, its length and breadth, and declared it to be a lake; his geographical description, therefore, of the regions about the north part of the Caspian, cannot be considered as worthy of much attention. Sogdiana is now a part of modern Bu- charia. Maracanda, its former capital, which lies between the Oxus and Jaxartes, is the modern flourishing and populous city of Samarcand, the native place of the conqueror Timur, commonly called Tamerlane. This fertile region was in antient, as it is in modern times, the limit of cultivation: north of the Jaxartes live the Nomadic Tartars. The best antient account of Sogdiana is in Arrian.

Please take a moment and head to the website below for further details covered in the video.

Forgotten realms of the Oxus region

A Manual of the Ancient History of the East to the Commencement of the Median Wars

François Lenormant Elisabeth Chevallier January 1, 1871
These localities, having been the cradle of post-diluvian humanity, nations who had preserved the remembrance were naturally led to place there also the cradle of antediluvian man. Among the Indians, men before the deluge like those after it, descended from Mount Merou. There is found the Outtara Kourou, the true terrestrial paradise. There also we are led by the Greek paradisiacal myth of the Meropes, the people of Merou.
The Persians described the " Aryanem Vaedjo," situated on Mount Berezat, as a paradise exactly resembling that of the book of Genesis, until the day when the fall of our first parents and the wickedness of Ahriman the spirit of evil, transformed it into an abode of insupportable cold.
The name also of Eden has been applied at one time to this region, for it is clearly found in the name of the kingdom of Oudyana, or " the garden," near Cashmere, watered by four rivers precisely as was the Mosaic Eden.
It is certain that two of the rivers of Paradise, in the Bible narrative, are two of the largest rivers which take their rise in the mountain mass of Belourtagh and Pamir, the one to the north, the other to the south.
Gihon is the Oxus, still called Djihoun by the people on its banks. In Pison we must recognise the Upper Indus, and the land of Havilah, rich in gold and precious stones, which it "compassed," seems to be the country of Darada, near Cashmere, so celebrated for its riches.
But must we conclude with some scholars the absolute identity of the Biblical Eden with the Outtara Kourou and the Aryanem Vaedjo? Need we suppose, with these critics, that the occurrence of the names of the Tigris and Euphrates, as the other rivers of Paradise, are the result of subsequent confusion? We think not; it seems to us, as to M. Bunsen, that in the mind of Moses Eden had a far greater extent than the Paradise of the Indians and Iranians.
If we take literally the indications of the Bible as to the four rivers which went out of Eden, they clearly mark out a vast region stretching from the mountains, where to the east rise the Oxus and the Indus, to those mountains whence on the west flow the Tigris and Euphrates — a fertile and temperate land— a really delicious abode, situated between regions burned up by heat, or wasted by cold. It is there that the inspired Hebrew legislator most probably thought that our species first saw the light.


Sanskrit Dictionary Udanya

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udanyaNom. P. udanyati- (parasmE-pada udany/at-) to irrigate ; to be exceedingly thirsty
udanyamfn. watery
udanyajamfn. born or living in water
audanyam. (fr. udanya-), Name of the ṛṣi- muṇḍibha-
audanyavam. (fr. udanyu-) idem or 'm. (fr. udanya-), Name of the ṛṣi- muṇḍibha- '
paudanyan. Name of a city (varia lectio vaidanya-).
vaudanyan. Name of a city (v.l.)
3 results
udanyaउदन्य a. 1 Thirsty. -2 Watery. धारा उदन्या इव Rv.2.7.3. -न्या Thirst; निर्वर्त्यतामुदन्याप्रतीकारः Ve.6; व्यस्यन्नुदन्यां शिशिरैः पयोभिः Bk.3.4. -Comp. -ज a. Ved. born or living in water. उदन्यजेव जेमना मदेरू Rv.1.16.6.
udanyaउदन्य See under उदन्.
udanyatiउदन्यति Den. P. P.VII.4.34. 1 To be thirsty. -2 To irrigate. दिशमिव दाहवतीं मरावुदन्यन् Bk.4.44.
1 result
udanyaa. surging, watery: â, f. desire for water, thirst; -yú, a. desirous of water; -vát, a. surging; abounding in water; m. ocean.
1 result
udanyajevajemanā maderū RV.10.106.6c; N.13.5c.
1 result
udanyanoun (masculine) [gramm.] denominative udany
Frequency rank 47264/72933
"udanya" has 3 results.
udanyajalāḍhya, jalaprāya, anūpa, bahūdaka, udanya, apavat, apas, aptya, ambumat, ammaya, ānūpa, āpya, udakala, udaja, udanvat, audaka, kaja, jāla, nārika, bahvap, bahvapa, vārya, sajala, sāmbhas, ambumatī
yasmin adhikaṃ jalaṃ vartate।
āpaṇikaḥ jalāḍhyaṃ dugdhaṃ vikrīṇāti।
ekaṃ nagaram ।
vaudanyasya ullekhaḥ mahābhārate asti
ekaṃ nagaram ।
mahābhārate paudanyasya varṇanam asti


Adina, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Adina is a town and union council of Swabi District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[1] It is located at an altitude of 303 metres (997 feet).[2]
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Khyber Pass

The Khyber Pass (Pashto: د خیبر درہ‎
Elevation: 1,070 m or 3,510 ft) is a mountain pass connecting Afghanistan and Pakistan, cutting through the northeastern part of the Spin Ghar mountains. An integral part of the ancient Silk Road, it is one of the oldest known passes in the world. Throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent and a strategic military location. The summit of the pass is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan atLandi Kotal. The Khyber Pass is part of the Asian Highway 1 (AH1). "Khyber" is the Hebrew word for fort.
H2249 חָבוֹר Chabowr (chaw-ɓore') n/l.
  1. united.
  2. Chabor, a river of Assyria.
[from H2266]
KJV: Habor.
Root(s): H2266
Exod 21:25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. AKJV
2Kgs 17:6 In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. AKJV
2Kgs 18:11 And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel to Assyria, and put them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes: AKJV
1Chr 5:26 And the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tilgathpilneser king of Assyria, and he carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan, to this day. AKJV
Ps 38:5 My wounds stink and are corrupt because of my foolishness. AKJV
Isa 1:6 From the sole of the foot even to the head there is no soundness in it; but wounds, and bruises, and putrefying sores: they have not been closed, neither bound up, neither mollified with ointment. AKJV
Hos 4:17 Ephraim is joined to idols: let him alone. AKJV
Acts 16:33 And he took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes; and was baptized, he and all his, straightway. AKJV
Gal 6:17 From now on let no man trouble me: for I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus. AKJV
Eph 4:16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplies, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, makes increase of the body to the edifying of itself in love. AKJV
Exod 21:25 כויה תחת כויה פצע תחת פצע חבורה תחת חבורה׃ HEBm
2Kgs 17:6 בשנת התשיעית להושע לכד מלך אשור את שמרון ויגל את ישראל אשורה וישב אתם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי׃ HEBm
2Kgs 18:11 ויגל מלך אשור את ישראל אשורה וינחם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי׃ HEBm
1Chr 5:26 ויער אלהי ישראל את רוח פול מלך אשור ואת רוח תלגת פלנסר מלך אשור ויגלם לראובני ולגדי ולחצי שבט מנשה ויביאם לחלח וחבור והרא ונהר גוזן עד היום הזה׃ HEBm
Ps 38:5 הבאישו נמקו חבורתי מפני אולתי׃ HEBm
Isa 1:6 מכף רגל ועד ראש אין בו מתם פצע וחבורה ומכה טריה לא זרו ולא חבשו ולא רככה בשמן׃ HEBm
Hos 4:17 חבור עצבים אפרים הנח לו׃ HEBm
Acts 16:33 ויקחם בלילה בשעה ההיא וירחץ את חבורתיהם וימהר להטבל הוא וכל אשר לו׃ HEBm
Gal 6:17 מעתה איש אל ילאני עוד כי את חבורות האדון ישוע אני נשא בגויתי׃ HEBm
Eph 4:16 אשר ממנו כל הגוף בהיותו מרכב ומדבק בכל חבור השמוש כפי מדת הפעלה הנתונה לכל אבר ואבר ירבה ויגדל להשלמת בנינו באהבה׃


Journal: Volume 67, Parts 1-2 Page 15

Asiatic Society (Calcutta, India) January 1, 1898
Meagre as these details are they show yet clearly that in searching for the national and literary affinities of the race which held the rule of Kia-pi-shi and Gandhāra in Hiuen Tsiang's time, we have to look to the Turkish tribes in the north and not in the direction of India. A century later Udyāna too had passed under the same dominion.
Whereas. Hiuen Tsiang speaks yet of independent kings in Udyāna (U-chang-na, Si-yu-ki, i., p. 121), we see from a passage of the T'ang Annals (L'Itinéraire d’Ou-K'ong, p. 349 note) that A.D. 745 this territory was already united with Gandhāra and Kia-pi-shi under the same rule. In that year P'o-p'o, king of Ki-pin, is said to have received the imperial authority for assuming the title of ‘King of Ki-pin and Ou-chang.’

This historical fact would allow us to account for the occurrence of Turkish inscriptions in regions like Swat and Boner which undoubtedly belonged to Udyāna, notwithstanding the record which Hiuen Tsiang has left us as to the connection of the language and writing of Udyāna with that of India.”
The publications of the Danish Academy and the Finno-Ugrian Society, containing the Orkhon inscriptions, are to my regret not accessible to me at present. I am, therefore, unable to ascertain with which of the several types of writing distinguished above their characters show most affinity. Perhaps, a comparison of the Orkhon inscriptions will also throw some light on the relation of these types amongst each other. The first three as well as the fifth have undoubtedly numerous simple characters in common and might represent modifications of one and the same system of writing adapted to different languages or dialects. It is, however, evident that other explanations are also possible, and that all conjectures on the subject must for the present remain extremely hazardous. Camp, Kashmir: 19th September, 1896.

“Their language though different in some points, yet greatly resembles that of India. Their written characters and their rules of etiquette are also of a mixed character as before.” See Si-yu-ki, i. p., 120. The local names of Swat and Boner, as far as shown on the map, with their frequent terminations in-gräm and-kót, seem to support the belief that these regions were at a time preceding the Pathân contuest inhabited by a population which in its great mass spoke an Indian language.

This circumstance, however, could well be reconciled with a prolonged dominion over those territories of Turkish masters or even their temporary occupation by a Turkish-speaking population. Without going for analogies to Europe where, e.g., the Balkan Peninsula would furnish them in plenty, we may refer to the local nomenclature of the Upper Derajāt along the right Indus bank and to that of Yusufzai-Gandhāra itself. This has preserved its Indian character notwithstanding the fact that the great mass of the population in these tracts has for centuries back been speaking Pusthu.

The Orkhon inscriptions (Turkmen: Orhon ýazgylary), also known as Orhon Inscriptions, Orhun Inscriptions and the Khöshöö Tsaidam monuments (Mongolian: Хөшөө цайдам, also spelled Khoshoo Tsaidam, Koshu-Tsaidam), are two memorial installations erected by the Göktürks written in Old Turkic alphabet in the early 8th century in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia. They were erected in honor of two Turkic princes, Kul Tigin and his brother Bilge Khagan.[1]

The inscriptions, in both Chinese and Old Turkic, relate the legendary origins of the Turks, the golden age of their history, their subjugation by the Chinese, and their liberation by Bilge Khagan.[2] In fact, according to one source, the inscriptions contain "rhythmic and parallelistic passages" that resemble that of epics.[3]


Oddiyana (Skt. Oḍḍiyāna; Tib. ཨུ་རྒྱན་, Orgyen; Wyl. u rgyan) — one of the twenty-four sacred places, Oddiyana played an important role in the history of Buddhism, especially from the perspective of Tibetan Buddhism.

It is believed to be the homeland of both the Vajrayana and Dzogchen teachings, and is said to be the land where Garab Dorje, Vairotsana, Padmasambhava and Tilopa, amongst others, received the transmissions of Dzogchen. Buddhist texts speak of Oddiyana as a beautifully green and fertile kingdom, inhabited by gentle people often clothed in white, who had great respect for wisdom and learning. It was surrounded by high, rugged mountains, and in the broad valleys were towering white stupas and golden temple roofs. It seemed a paradise on earth and so was called “the royal garden” from the Sanskrit udyana. Oddiyana was also known as “the paradise of the dakinis”, as it was reputed for its unique sisterhood of priestesses—ladies dedicated to wisdom and spiritual development. These priestesses were not nuns, and lived in sanctuaries or forest chapels.

With regard to the origins of the Vajrayana teachings, the tantric scriptures recount that it was King Dza of the kingdom of Zahor who first received the tantras, which landed miraculously on his palace roof. It is believed that Dza is another name for King Indrabodhi of Oddiyana. If this is the case, then the tantras began to be disseminated in Oddiyana.
The first human Dzogchen master, Garab Dorje, was born near Lake Kutra in Oddiyana. His disciple, Manjushrimitra, was Indian and received the teachings in Bodh Gaya, and the next lineage holder, Shri Singha, came from the Central Asian kingdom of Khotan, but it was in Oddiyana near Lake Dhanakosha that he passed the lineage to Vairotsana.

Padmasambhava, who was to introduce Vajrayana and Dzogchen to Tibet was miraculously born on Lake Dhanakosha and raised by the king of Oddiyana.
Many of the Dzogchen texts that were translated into Tibetan during the early period of transmission were translated from the language of Oddiyana.


Most Tibetan texts simply explain that Oddiyana was a kingdom that lay to the west or northwest of India, and many Western scholars have identified it with the valley of Swat, in present-day northwestern Kashmir, in Pakistan.
However, Patrul Rinpoche gives a more precise indication of where Oddiyana was in The Words of My Perfect Teacher (Tib. Kunzang Lamé Shyalung)[1] when he describes the birthplace of Garab Dorje as being close to Lake Kutra in the region of Dhanakosha. Dhanakosha means ‘treasury of wealth’. This corresponds to a region between Chitral, Gilgit and Swat. John Reynolds suggests that “perhaps Uddiyana is actually a name of a much wider geographical area than the Swat Valley alone, one embracing parts of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and even Western Tibet (Zhang Zhung)."[2]
Professor Lokesh Chandra has also argued that Oddiyana was located in South India.[3]
  1. Jump up↑ Patrul Rinpoche, The Words of My Perfect Teacher, Shambhala, Boston, 1998, p.339.
  2. Jump up↑ Reynolds, John M., The Golden Letters, Snow Lion, Ithaca, New York, 1996, pp.211-212.
  3. Jump up↑ 'Oḍḍiyāna: A New Interpretation' in M. Aris & Aung San Suu Kyi, Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh Richardson, Warminster, 1980, pp. 73-78 

Swat District 

Nickname(s): Switzerland of the East[1]
Coordinates: 35°23′N 72°11′ECoordinates35°23′N 72°11′E
ProvinceKhyber Pakhtunkhwa
 • Total5,337 km2 (2,061 sq mi)
Population (2014)
 • Total2,161,000
 • Density236/km2 (610/sq mi)
Time zonePKT (UTC+5)
Area code(s)Area code 0946
Languages (1981)90.28% Pashto
8.67%  Kohistani[2]
Swat (Pashto: سوات‎ pronounced [ˈswaːt̪]; historically known as Uddyana, lit. garden);[1] is a river valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. It is the upper valley of the Swat River, which rises in the Hindu Kushrange. The capital of Swat is Saidu Sharif, but the main town in the Swat valley is Mingora.[3] It was a princely state, the Yusafzai State of Swat, until 1969, when it was dissolved[4] along with the states of Dir and Chitral and made part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, then known as North West Frontier Province. The valley is populated mostly by ethnic Pashtuns and Gujjar and Kohistani communities. The languages spoken in the valley are Pashto, Gojri, Torwali andKohistani.

With high mountains, green meadows, and clear lakes, it is a place of great natural beauty and is popular with tourists. Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to the The Yusafzai State of Swat called it "the Switzerland of the east."[5]
Swat is surrounded by Chitral, Upper Dir and Lower Dir in the West, Gilgit-Baltistanin North Kohistan, Buner and Shangla in the East and south East.

Geography of the Rigveda; the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are indicated.
The name Swat is derived from Suvastu which stood for river Swat in the ancient times. The river Suvastu is mentioned in the Rigveda.[6] This is probably the precursor to the river Swat.[7]

Archaeological sites being neglected 

SWABI, Oct 7: There are various archaeological sites in the frontier province as the NWFP used to be main centre of Gandhara art, whose cultural and historical importance has not only been known in Pakistan but throughout the world.
According to Zainul Wahab, an archaeologist and in-charge of Mardan Museum, Gandhara was the ancient name of the Peshawar Valley. It comprised the present districts of Peshawar, Mardan, Swabi, Charsadda, Swat, Dir, Buner, and Bajaur Agency. The city of Jalalabad in Afghanistan was also part of the Gandhara civilization.

The Scythians, the Parthians, the Kushans, the Huns and some other Central Asian conquerors had settled in the Frontier as they were attracted by the pleasant climate and fertility of the region.

There are more than 300 archaeological sites in Mardan and Swabi. Prominent among those are Takhtbhai, Ashoka’s edicts at Shabaz Garhi, Jamal Garhi, Asota, Hund, Aziz Dheri, Ganguder, Mekha, Sanda, Safiabad, Kashmir Smast (cave), Torabaz Kaka stupa, Trali, Chanako Dheri and Tangu.

The sites at Shahbaz Garhi (Mardan) and Hund (Swabi) have a unique importance from the archaeological point of view. At present, Hund, which was the capital of Hindu Shahi till the commencement of 11th century, is facing neglect.

Hund, situated on the right bank of the Indus river at a distance of about 50km from the Attock bridge, was the most important strategic, political and commercial centre of ancient India.

Archaeologists say that most of the traders from Central and South Asia crossed the river at Hund to continue the two-way trade.

Hund was invaded by Alexander the Great, Greeks and Persians. The famous Buddha ruler of India Ashoka had sent Buddhist scholars to preach Buddhism there.

Keeping in view the historical significance of Hund, excavation in the area was in full swing till August 1996. One fundamental objective of the excavation was to preserve the cultural and historical values and secure material for the proposed museum at Hund.

It was expected that the tourists would have a chance to enjoy a beautiful view of the River Indus and experience the traditional and ancient crossing point at Hund.

The excavation work was inaugurated by the then federal cultural secretary, Arshad Sami Khan, along with renowned archaeologist Dr Ahmad Hassan Dani and Vice-Chancellor of Peshawar University Prof Durani. The excavation teams started work under the supervision of Ihsan Ali, Associate Professor at the Department of Archaeology, University of Peshawar, and Zainul Wahab, in-charge of the Mardan Museum.

So far, some structures and other signs of the Islamic period like that of stones and diaper masonry, several floor levels, pits oven and some other features have been excavated. The antiquity record included utensils, copper and iron rings, household objects, figures of Terra-Cotta, precious and semi-precious stones and stone beads and glass shells.

More than 90 beads and pots including pictures, jars, cups, plates and other instruments of daily use have also been excavated.

Zainul Wahab told Dawn that due to lack of funds the excavation work had been stopped. He said the government should allocate sufficient funds for the excavation process. He also demanded of the government to take practical measures to stop illegal excavation by unscrupulous elements.

According to a journalist of Swabi, Mohammad Arif, a contractor of the Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway had demolished a hillock of archaeological importance at Hund by removing earth from it.

The hillock known as “Chapai” was a valuable site for the students of archaeology. The archaeologists claimed that during the period of Alexander the Great, this artificial earthen hillock was built as a “High Mark” to give signals by lighting lantern to those crossing the river at night.

The “Chapai” was also used during the war for providing vital information to forces and protecting them from enemy’s surprise attacks.

A few months’ back people involved in smuggling of archaeological relics carried excavation at “Chapai” at night and took away valuables of ancient civilization, he claimed.

The archaeologists have urged the government to protect and safeguard Hund suburbs from illegal excavation. They demanded resumption of excavation at Hund and construction of museum at Hund.

Ezekiel 28:13

13 בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה מסכתך אדם פטדה ויהלם תרשיש שהם וישפה ספיר נפך וברקת וזהב מלאכת תפיך ונקביך בך ביום הבראך כוננו׃
“You were in Eden, the garden of God;
Every precious stone was your covering:
The ruby, the topaz and the diamond;
The beryl, the onyx and the jasper;
The lapis lazuli, the turquoise and the emerald;
And the gold, the workmanship of your settings and sockets,
Was in you.
On the day that you were created
They were prepared.

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis lazuli (/ˈlæpɪs ˈlæzʲuːli/, /-ˈlæzʲuːlaɪ/), or lapis for short, is a deep blue semi-precious stone prized since antiquity for its intense color. Lapis lazuli was mined in the Sar-i Sangmines [1]
and in other mines in the Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan as early as the 7th millennium BC.[2] Lapis beads have been found at neolithic burials in Mehrgarh, the Caucasus, and even as far from Afghanistan as Mauritania.[3] It was used for the eyebrows, among other features, on the funeral mask of Tutankhamun(1341–1323 BC).[4](ed.)

At the end of the Middle Ages, lapis lazuli began to be exported to Europe, where it was ground into powder and made into ultramarine, the finest and most expensive of all bluepigments. It was used by some of the most important artists of the Renaissance and Baroque, including Masaccio, Perugino, Titian and Vermeer, and was often reserved for the clothing of the central figures of their paintings, especially the Virgin Mary.
Today mines in northeast Afghanistan and Pakistan are still the major source of lapis lazuli. Important amounts are also produced from mines west of Lake Baikal in Russia, and in theAndes mountains in Chile. Smaller quantities are mined in Italy, Mongolia, the United States and Canada.[5]

Lapis Lazuli 

Lapis lazuli is a gemstone of the kind that might have come straight out of the Arabian Nights: a deep blue with golden inclusions of pyrites which shimmer like little stars.

This opaque, deep blue gemstone has a grand past. It was among the first gemstones to be worn as jewellery and worked on. At excavations in the ancient centres of culture around the Mediterranean, archaeologists have again and again found among the grave furnishings decorative chains and figures made of lapis lazuli – clear indications that the deep blue stone was already popular thousands of years ago among the people of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Greece and Rome. It is said that the legendary city of Ur on the Euphrates plied a keen lapis lazuli trade as long ago as the fourth millennium B.C., the material coming to the land of the two great rivers from the famous deposits in Afghanistan. In other cultures, lapis lazuli was regarded as a holy stone. Particularly in the Middle East, it was thought to have magical powers. Countless signet rings, scarabs and figures were wrought from the blue stone which Alexander the Great brought to Europe. There, the colour was referred to as 'ultramarine', which means something like 'from beyond the sea'.

The most expensive blue of all time
The euphonious name is composed from 'lapis', the Latin word for stone, and 'azula', which comes from the Arabic and means blue. All right, so it's a blue gemstone - but what an incredible blue! The worth of this stone to the world of art is immeasurable, for the ultramarine of the Old Masters is nothing other than genuine lapis lazuli. Ground up into a powder and stirred up together with binding-agents, the marble-like gemstone can be used to manufacture radiant blue watercolours, tempera or oil-paints. Before the year 1834, when it became possible to produce this colour synthetically, the only ultramarine available was that valuable substance made from genuine lapis lazuli that shines out at us from many works of art today. Many pictures of the Madonna, for example, were created using this paint. But in those days, ultramarine blue was not only precious and so intense that its radiance outshone all other colours; it was also very expensive. But unlike all other blue pigments, which tend to pale in the light, it has lost none of its radiance to this very day. Nowadays, the blue pigment obtained from lapis lazuli is mainly used in restoration work and by collectors of historical paints.
The stone of friendship and truth
Lapis lazuli is regarded by many people around the world as the stone of friendship and truth. The blue stone is said to encourage harmony in relationships and help its wearer to be authentic and give his or her opinion openly.
Lapis lazuli is an opaque rock that mainly consists of diopside and lazurite. It came into being millions of years ago during the metamorphosis of lime to marble. Uncut, lapis lazuli is matt and of a deep, dark blue colour, often with golden inclusions and whitish marble veins. The small inclusions with their golden shimmer, which give the stone the magic of a starry sky, are not of gold as people used to think, but of pyrites. Their cause is iron. The blue colour comes from the sulphur content of the lazurite and may range from pure ultramarine to a lighter blue. At between 5 and 6 on the Mohs scale, this stone is among the less hard gemstones.
When the cutter turns up his nose ...
Many a cutter 'turns up his nose' when cutting lapis lazuli, for as soon as the stone comes into contact with the cutting-disc it gives off a typical smell. An experienced cutter can even tell from the odour how intense the colour is. When polishing this stone, he must handle it gently on account of its modest hardness and not subject it to much pressure. But there is no need for the wearer to worry: a lapis lazuli that has grown matt from having been worn too much can easily be repolished at any time. Lapis lazuli is often sealed with colourless wax or synthetic resin. As long as these substances are not mixed with any colouring agent, this sealing process simply has the effect of improving the stone's wearing qualities. Having said that, the stone should always be protected from acidic substances, and it should not be exposed to too much sunlight.

As they did more than 5000 years ago, the best raw stones still come from the steep Hindu Kush in the north-east of Afghanistan. The lumps of blue rock, extracted from the inhospitable mountains by blasting, are brought down into the valley in the summer months by mules. Nature also created deposits in Russia, to the west of Lake Baikal, and in the Chilean Andes, where the blue rock often has white or grey lime running through it. In smaller amounts, lapis lazuli is also found in Italy, Mongolia, the USA and Canada, Myanmar and Pakistan, but in really good qualities it is rare all over. That is why the prices of jewellery with lapis lazuli vary very widely, from luxurious to quite inexpensive. The prices of this gemstone are largely dependent on the beauty and intensity of the colour. The most popular is an intense, deep blue. Women with a pale complexion, however, often prefer the lighter shades of blue. Finely distributed crystals of pyrites which shimmer in gold and look like sequins will increase the value of the gemstone, whilst a restless, rough or blotchy grain will reduce it.

Lapis lazuli is a versatile and popular gemstone which has shown extraordinary stability in the turbulent tides of fashion. No wonder, since it has fascinated both men and women for thousands of years with its fabulous colour and those golden points of light formed by pyrites.

Sar-i Sang

Sar-e Sang
Sar-i Sang
Lazurite from Sar-e Sang
Sar-e Sang
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 36°12′36″N 70°47′36″ECoordinates36°12′36″N 70°47′36″E
Country Afghanistan
ProvinceBadakhshan Province
Time zone+ 4.30
Another Sar-e Sang Lazurite crystal, with the classic deep azure-blue color. Crystal is 4.5 cm wide.

Sar-i Sang (or Sar-e Sang) is a settlement in the Kuran Wa Munjan District of Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, famous for its ancient lapis lazuli mines producing the world's finest lapis.[1]
Lapis lazuli mines

Sar-i Sang lapis lazuli mine probably dates from proto-historic times. It consists of one old disused shaft and two new shafts. This was the main source of lapis lazuli in the ancient world, with lapis from here occurring in such famous archaeological discoveries as the Royal Treasure of Ur and the Tomb of Tutankhamun.[2]
    1. Jump up^ "NGA GeoName Database"National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2008-06-08. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
    2. Jump up^ Warwick Ball, 2008, 'The Monuments of Afghanistan: History, Archaeology and Architecture': 261, London.
External links

Gemstones from Afghanistan 

Sistan Basin

The Sistan Basin is an inland endorheic basin encompassing large parts of southwestern Afghanistan and minor parts of southeastern Iran, one of the driest regions in the world and an area subjected to prolonged droughts. Its watershed is a system of rivers flowing from the highlands of Afghanistan into freshwater lakes and marshes and then to its ultimate destination: Afghanistan's saline Godzareh depression, part of the extensive Sistan terminal basin. The Helmand River drains the basin's largest watershed, fed mainly by snowmeltfrom the mountains of Hindu Kush, but other rivers contribute also.[1][2]
A basalt hill, known as Mount Khajeh, rises beside the lakes and marshes of the basin.


The lowest part of the Sistan Basin contains a series of shallow lakes, known as hamuns. It appears that in the past there was a single Hamun Lake,[3] but there are now three separate lakes. From north to south the lakes are:
Hamun-e Puzak
The Hamun-e Puzak lies mostly in Afghanistan. It receives water from the Shelah Charkh channel of the Helmand River, and also from the Khash River and other small rivers.[4]
Hamun-e Sabari
The Hamun-e Sabari is split between Iran and Afghanistan. It receives water from the Parian branch of Helmand River, the Farah River and the Harut River.[4]
Hamun-e Helmand
Main article: Hamun-e Helmand
The largest proportion of the Helmand River's waters flow into the Hamun-e Helmand, which is entirely in Iran, by a channel known as the Rud-e Sistan.
In times of flood the hamuns join into one large lake, and once every 20 years or so the floodwaters create an overflow from the Hamun-e Helmand by a normally dry river known as the Shela Rud, terminating in the Godzareh depression. In 1885 there was an exceptional flood, and the floodwaters filled the depression for three years.[4]
In recent years, particularly during a drought from 1998 to 2005, the hamuns have dried up completely.[4]
Ecological importance
Since the economy of the region is based on agriculture, subsistence depends on snowmelt and rainfall in the high mountains to sustain the health of the Sistan Basin and its wetlands. This source of water severely fluctuates over time and therefore has resulted in fundamental problems of survival for human settlements in the area. A severe drought began at the turn of twenty-first century and as of 2005 has lasted six years with extreme consequences for the populations.[1]
The region's economic survival is dependent on the wetland's products. For example, beds of reeds provide livestock food, cooking and heating fuel, and the raw materials for structures and handicrafts. Water availability affects the income derived from fishing and hunting, an important source of income. The result of the drought has been the collapse of the local economy as well as destruction of the wetland's ecological system, causing damage to the agriculture in the delta based on the Helmand River's irrigation.[5]
For more than 5,000 years the Sistan basin has been inhabited by sophisticated cultures and thus contains some key archaeological sites. The Shahr-i Sokhta, or "Burnt City", in Iran, built in 3100 B.C. near a currently dried-up branch of the Helmand River, was abandoned one thousand years later, most likely due climate changes that altered the river course.
Also, Shahdad is a related site from the Bronze age.
Kang and Zaranj in Afghanistan were major medieval cultural hubs, now covered by sand. Here, signs of historical irrigation systems, including canals, are still visible in the Dasht-e-Margo and Chakhansur areas while elsewhere canals are filled with siltand agricultural fields buried by shifting sand. Today the area is sparsely populated.[1]
Excavations have also revealed a citadel complex, and the remains of a Zoroastrianfire temple, on Mount Khajeh.
There are other important sites in this area.
See also
    1. Jump up to:a b c "History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin 1976 - 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-07-20.
    2. Jump up^ "Restoration, Protection and Sustainable Use of the Sistan Basin". Retrieved 2007-07-20.
    3. Jump up^ "9: The issue of Lake Hamun and the Hirmand River". Central Eurasian water crisis: Caspian, Aral, and Dead Seas. United Nations University. 1998. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
    4. Jump up to:a b c d Whitney, John (2006). "Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
    5. Jump up^ "History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin". Retrieved 2007-07-20.
External links

Petroglyphs Photo taken in Jurm, Afghanistan

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Terms of Use
500 m
Photo taken in Jurm, Afghanistan
36° 46' 50.00" N 70° 50' 29.75" E
Original Videos and Research from The Bands of Time, The End Time Tribune and Overt Attention Show.

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