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Erbil The Leopard with 4 Wings


(Dan 7:6) After this I looked, and behold, another, like a leopard, with four wings of a bird on its back. And the beast had four heads, and dominion was given to it.




H5774 עוּף `uwph (oof) v.

1. to cover (with wings or obscurity).2. (hence, as denominative from H5775) to fly.3. (by implication of dimness) to faint (from the darkness of swooning). [a primitive root]

KJV: brandish, be (wax) faint, flee away, fly (away), X set, shine forth, weary.

See also: H5775

Gen 1:21 So God created the great sea creatures and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. ESV2011

Gen 1:30 And to every beast of the earth and to every bird of the heavens and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so. ESV2011

Gen 2:19 Now out of the ground the LORD God had formed every beast of the field and every bird of the heavens and brought them to the man to see what he would call them. And whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. ESV2011

Gen 6:7 So the LORD said, “I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, man and animals and creeping things and birds of the heavens, for I am sorry that I have made them.” ESV2011

Gen 7:23 He blotted out every living thing that was on the face of the ground, man and animals and creeping things and birds of the heavens. They were blotted out from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those who were with him in the ark. ESV2011

Gen 9:2 The fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth and upon every bird of the heavens, upon everything that creeps on the ground and all the fish of the sea. Into your hand they are delivered. ESV2011

Lev 17:13 “Any one also of the people of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among them, who takes in hunting any beast or bird that may be eaten shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth. ESV2011

Deut 14:20 All clean winged things you may eat. ESV2011

Deut 28:26 And your dead body shall be food for all birds of the air and for the beasts of the earth, and there shall be no one to frighten them away. ESV2011

2Sam 21:10 Then Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth and spread it for herself on the rock, from the beginning of harvest until rain fell upon them from the heavens. And she did not allow the birds of the air to come upon them by day, or the beasts of the field by night. ESV2011

1Kgs 14:11 Anyone belonging to Jeroboam who dies in the city the dogs shall eat, and anyone who dies in the open country the birds of the heavens shall eat, for the LORD has spoken it.”’ ESV2011

1Kgs 16:4 Anyone belonging to Baasha who dies in the city the dogs shall eat, and anyone of his who dies in the field the birds of the heavens shall eat.” ESV2011

1Kgs 21:24 Anyone belonging to Ahab who dies in the city the dogs shall eat, and anyone of his who dies in the open country the birds of the heavens shall eat.” ESV2011

Job 5:7 but man is born to trouble as the sparks fly upward. ESV2011

Ps 50:11 ​I know all the birds of the hills, and all that moves in the field is mine. ESV2011

Ps 78:27 he rained meat on them like dust, winged birds like the sand of the seas; ESV2011

Ps 104:12 Beside them the birds of the heavens dwell; they sing among the branches. ESV2011

Eccl 10:20 Even in your thoughts, do not curse the king, nor in your bedroom curse the rich, for a bird of the air will carry your voice, or some winged creature tell the matter. ESV2011

Jer 4:25 ​I looked, and behold, there was no man, and all the birds of the air had fled. ESV2011

Jer 5:27 Like a cage full of birds, their houses are full of deceit; therefore they have become great and rich; ESV2011

Jer 15:3 I will appoint over them four kinds of destroyers, declares the LORD: the sword to kill, the dogs to tear, and the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth to devour and destroy. ESV2011

Ezek 31:6 ​All the birds of the heavens made their nests in its boughs; under its branches all the beasts of the field gave birth to their young, and under its shadow lived all great nations. ESV2011

Ezek 31:13 On its fallen trunk dwell all the birds of the heavens, and on its branches are all the beasts of the field. ESV2011

Ezek 32:4 And I will cast you on the ground; on the open field I will fling you, and will cause all the birds of the heavens to settle on you, and I will gorge the beasts of the whole earth with you. ESV2011

Dan 7:6 After this I looked, and behold, another, like a leopard, with four wings of a bird on its back. And the beast had four heads, and dominion was given to it. ESV2011

Hos 2:18 And I will make for them a covenant on that day with the beasts of the field, the birds of the heavens, and the creeping things of the ground. And I will abolish the bow, the sword, and war from the land, and I will make you lie down in safety. ESV2011

Zeph 1:3 “I will sweep away man and beast; I will sweep away the birds of the heavens and the fish of the sea, and the rubble with the wicked. I will cut off mankind from the face of the earth,” declares the LORD. ESV2011

Matt 6:26 Look at the birds of the air: they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they? ESV2011

Matt 13:32 It is the smallest of all seeds, but when it has grown it is larger than all the garden plants and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and make nests in its branches.” ESV2011

Mark 4:4 And as he sowed, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came and devoured it. ESV2011

Mark 4:32 yet when it is sown it grows up and becomes larger than all the garden plants and puts out large branches, so that the birds of the air can make nests in its shade.” ESV2011

Rom 1:23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things. ESV2011

Rev 18:2 And he called out with a mighty voice, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! She has become a dwelling place for demons, a haunt for every unclean spirit, a haunt for every unclean bird, a haunt for every unclean and detestable beast. ESV2011

Hebrew

(Gen 1:21) ויברא אלהים את התנינם הגדלים ואת כל נפש החיה הרמשת אשר שרצו המים למינהם ואת כל עוף כנף למינהו וירא אלהים כי טוב׃

(Gen 1:30) ולכל חית הארץ ולכל עוף השמים ולכל רומש על הארץ אשר בו נפש חיה את כל ירק עשב לאכלה ויהי כן׃

Gen 2:19) ויצר יהוה אלהים מן האדמה כל חית השדה ואת כל עוף השמים ויבא אל האדם לראות מה יקרא לו וכל אשר יקרא לו האדם נפש חיה הוא שמו׃

(Gen 6:7) ויאמר יהוה אמחה את האדם אשר בראתי מעל פני האדמה מאדם עד בהמה עד רמש ועד עוף השמים כי נחמתי כי עשיתם׃

(Gen 7:23) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה מאדם עד בהמה עד רמש ועד עוף השמים וימחו מן הארץ וישאר אך נח ואשר אתו בתבה׃

(Gen 9:2) ומוראכם וחתכם יהיה על כל חית הארץ ועל כל עוף השמים בכל אשר תרמש האדמה ובכל דגי הים בידכם נתנו׃

(Lev 17:13) ואיש איש מבני ישראל ומן הגר הגר בתוכם אשר יצוד ציד חיה או עוף אשר יאכל ושפך את דמו וכסהו בעפר׃

(Deut 14:20) כל עוף טהור תאכלו׃

(Deut 28:26) והיתה נבלתך למאכל לכל עוף השמים ולבהמת הארץ ואין מחריד׃

(2Sam 21:10) ותקח רצפה בת איה את השק ותטהו לה אל הצור מתחלת קציר עד נתך מים עליהם מן השמים ולא נתנה עוף השמים לנוח עליהם יומם ואת חית השדה לילה׃

(1Kgs 14:11) המת לירבעם בעיר יאכלו הכלבים והמת בשדה יאכלו עוף השמים כי יהוה דבר׃

(1Kgs 16:4) המת לבעשא בעיר יאכלו הכלבים והמת לו בשדה יאכלו עוף השמים׃

(1Kgs 21:24) המת לאחאב בעיר יאכלו הכלבים והמת בשדה יאכלו עוף השמים׃

(Job 5:7) כי אדם לעמל יולד ובני רשף יגביהו עוף׃

(Ps 50:11) ידעתי כל עוף הרים וזיז שדי עמדי׃

(Ps 78:27) וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול ימים עוף כנף׃

(Ps 104:12) עליהם עוף השמים ישכון מבין עפאים יתנו קול׃

(Eccl 10:20) גם במדעך מלך אל תקלל ובחדרי משכבך אל תקלל עשיר כי עוף השמים יוליך את הקול ובעל הכנפים יגיד דבר׃

(Jer 4:25) ראיתי והנה אין האדם וכל עוף השמים נדדו׃

(Jer 5:27) ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה על כן גדלו ויעשירו׃

(Jer 15:3) ופקדתי עליהם ארבע משפחות נאם יהוה את החרב להרג ואת הכלבים לסחב ואת עוף השמים ואת בהמת הארץ לאכל ולהשחית׃

(Ezek 31:6) בסעפתיו קננו כל עוף השמים ותחת פארתיו ילדו כל חית השדה ובצלו ישבו כל גוים רבים׃

(Ezek 31:13) על מפלתו ישכנו כל עוף השמים ואל פארתיו היו כל חית השדה׃

(Ezek 32:4) ונטשתיך בארץ על פני השדה אטילך והשכנתי עליך כל עוף השמים והשבעתי ממך חית כל הארץ׃

(Dan 7:6) באתר דנה חזה הוית וארו אחרי כנמר ולה גפין ארבע די עוף על גביה וארבעה ראשין לחיותא ושלטן יהיב לה׃

(Hos 2:18) וכרתי להם ברית ביום ההוא עם חית השדה ועם עוף השמים ורמש האדמה וקשת וחרב ומלחמה אשבור מן הארץ והשכבתים לבטח׃

(Zeph 1:3) אסף אדם ובהמה אסף עוף השמים ודגי הים והמכשלות את הרשעים והכרתי את האדם מעל פני האדמה נאם יהוה׃

(Matt 6:26) הביטו וראו את עוף השמים אשר אינם זרעים ואינם קצרים ואינם אספים לאסמים ואביכם שבשמים מכלכל אתם הלא אתם נעליתם עליהם מאד׃

(Matt 13:32) והוא קטן מכל הזרועים וכאשר צמח גדול הוא מן הירקות והיה לעץ עד אשר יבאו עוף השמים וקננו בענפיו׃

(Mark 4:4) ויהי בזרעו ויפל מן הזרע על יד הדרך ויבא עוף השמים ויאכלהו׃

(Mark 4:32) ואחרי הזרעו יעלה ויגדל על כל הירקות ועשה ענפים גדולים עד אשר יוכלו עוף השמים לקנן בצלו׃

(Rom 1:23) וימירו את כבוד האלהים אשר איננו נפסד בדמות צלם אדם הנפסד צלם כל עוף והולך על ארבע ורמש האדמה׃

(Rev 18:2) ויקרא בקול עז לאמר נפלה נפלה בבל הגדולה ותהי נוה שערים ומשמר לכל רוח טמא ומשמר לכל עוף טמא ונמאס׃

(Jer 5:6) Therefore a lion from the forest shall strike them down; a wolf from the desert shall devastate them. A leopard is watching their cities; everyone who goes out of them shall be torn in pieces, because their transgressions are many, their apostasies are great.

(Ezek 32:4) And I will cast you on the ground; on the open field I will fling you, and will cause all the birds of the heavens to settle on you, and I will gorge the beasts of the whole earth with you.

Take note that Babylon listed as instrument of judgement against 7 people groups are listed in this chapter. (For a total of 8 if Babylon is included)

כנמר

H5245 נְמַר nmar (nem-ar') n-m.

a leopard.

[(Aramaic) corresponding to H5246]

KJV: leopard.

Root(s): H5246

Dan 7:6 After this I looked, and behold, another, like a leopard, with four wings of a bird on its back. And the beast had four heads, and dominion was given to it. ESV2011

Hos 13:7 So I am to them like a lion; like a leopard I will lurk beside the way. ESV2011

Rev 13:2 And the beast that I saw was like a leopard; its feet were like a bear's, and its mouth was like a lion's mouth. And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority. ESV2011

(Dan 7:6) באתר דנה חזה הוית וארו אחרי כנמר ולה גפין ארבע די עוף על גביה וארבעה ראשין לחיותא ושלטן יהיב לה׃

(Hos 13:7) ואהי להם כמו שחל כנמר על דרך אשור׃

(Rev 13:2) והחיה אשר ראיתי מראה כנמר ורגליה כרגלי דב ופיה כפי אריה ויתן לה התנין את כחו ואת כסאו וממשל רב׃

(Rev 13:2) And the beast that I saw was like a leopard; its feet were like a bear's, and its mouth was like a lion's mouth. And to it the dragon gave his power and his throne and great authority.

Note order leopard, feet bear, mouth lion

2nd Beast

(Rev 13:11) Then I saw another beast rising out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb and it spoke like a dragon.

נמר

(Jer 5:6) על כן הכם אריה מיער זאב ערבות ישדדם נמר שקד על עריהם כל היוצא מהנה יטרף כי רבו פשעיהם עצמו משבותיהם׃

(Jer 48:11) שאנן מואב מנעוריו ושקט הוא אל שמריו ולא הורק מכלי אל כלי ובגולה לא הלך על כן עמד טעמו בו וריחו לא נמר׃

Same word for wings is in:

Jer 5:6 Therefore a lion from the forest shall strike them down; a wolf from the desert shall devastate them. A leopard is watching their cities; everyone who goes out of them shall be torn in pieces, because their transgressions are many, their apostasies are great. ESV2011

Jer 48:11 “Moab has been at ease from his youth and has settled on his dregs; he has not been emptied from vessel to vessel, nor has he gone into exile; so his taste remains in him, and his scent is not changed. ESV2011

(Jer 48:11) שַׁאֲנַ֨ן H7599 מוֹאָ֜ב H4124 מִ·נְּעוּרָ֗י·ו H5271 וְ·שֹׁקֵ֥ט H8252 הוּא֙ H1931 אֶל־ H413 שְׁמָרָ֔י·ו H8105 וְ·לֹֽא־ H3808 הוּרַ֤ק H7324 מִ·כְּלִי֙ H3627 אֶל־ H413 כֶּ֔לִי H3627 וּ·בַ·גּוֹלָ֖ה H1473 לֹ֣א H3808 הָלָ֑ךְ H1980 עַל־ H5921 כֵּ֗ן H3651 עָמַ֤ד H5975 טַעְמ·וֹ֙ H2940 בּ֔·וֹ H0 וְ·רֵיח֖·וֹ H7381 לֹ֥א H3808 נָמָֽר׃ H4171 ס

Notice this Hebrew word, with the definition supplied, is the same as

נְמַר nmar (nem-ar') n-m. a leopard.

נָמָֽר׃ H4171 ס

H4171 מוּר muwr (moor) v.

1. to alter.2. (by implication) to barter, to dispose of.

[a primitive root]KJV: X at all, (ex-)change, remove.

Riblah

H7247 רִבלָה Riblah (riɓ-law') n/l.

1. fertile.2. Riblah, a place in Syria.

[from an unused root meaning to be fruitful]

KJV: Riblah.

In the Hellenic era the city became known as Arbela ('Άρβηλα).

Άρβηλα

(Num 34:11) και καταβησεται τα ορια απο σεπφαμ αρβηλα απο ανατολων επι πηγας και καταβησεται τα ορια βηλα επι νωτου θαλασσης χεναρα απο ανατολων

(Num 34:11) And the border shall go down from Sepphamar to Bela eastward to the fountains, and the border shall go down from Bela behind the sea Chenereth eastward.

Hebrew

(Num 34:11) וירד הגבל משפם הרבלה מקדם לעין וירד הגבול ומחה על כתף ים כנרת קדמה׃

The ancient town of Riblah (meaning "fruitful"), today a tell covered by a cemetery not far from the town of Ribleh on the Syrian side of the border with Lebanon, was in biblical times located on the northern frontier of the land of Canaan.

The site lays on the eastern bank of the Orontes, in a wide and fertile plain, 35 miles north-east of Baalbek and 10 or 12 south of the artificial Lake Homs created by the Romans.[1][2][3]

There was a second town by the same name on the eastern edges of Canaan known from Numbers 34:2, 10, 11, but whose location is still uncertain.[1][2] In the opinion of many scholars, the place rendered as "Diblah" in Ezekiel 6:14 ("from the wilderness to Diblah") should read "Riblah", being the same as the town discussed here.[2]

It was at Riblah that King Necho II, pharaoh of Egypt (c. 610 – c. 595 BCE), established his camp after he had routed Josiah's Judahite army at Megiddo in 609 BCE. Soon after, the son of Josiah, the newly anointed King Jehoahaz, was made prisoner, brought to Riblah and taken to Egypt (2 Kings 23:29-34).

Some two decades later, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon also set up his headquarters here during his campaign against Judah, which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 or 586 BCE. King Zedekiah was taken captive and brought to Riblah, where he had to witness how his sons were killed, after which he was blinded and taken to Babylon.

His officials were also put to death in Riblah (2 Kings 25:6-7, 18-21. Jer. 39:5-7; 52:9-11, 26-27).[1][2][3]

The town was situated on the main international trade route from Egypt to Mesopotamia, via Israel and the town of Carchemish where the road crossed over the Euphrates River. An important strategic asset, Riblah had plenty of water, food and fuel, which made also suitable as a military camp.[2]

The town is described in Num. 34:11 as "on the eastern side of Ain." A place still called el-Ain, i.e., "the fountain", can still be found about 10 miles away.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riblah>

The Battle of Gaugamela

The place associated with Alexander killing Darius, where the goat hit the ram the first time? Where NATO is using the Kurds to attack ISIS the Medes on top of it all

The Persian emperor Cyrus the Great occupied Assyria in 547 BC, and established it as an Achaemenid satrapy called in Old Persian Aθurā (Athura), with Arbela as the capital.

The Battle of Gaugamela (/ˌɡɔːɡəˈmiːlə/; Greek: Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela, was the decisive battle of Alexander the Great's invasion of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. In 331 BC Alexander's army of the Hellenic League met the Persian army of Darius III near Gaugamela, close to the modern city of Dohuk (Iraqi Kurdistan).[6] Even though heavily outnumbered, Alexander emerged victorious due to his army's superior tactics and his deft employment of light infantry . It was a decisive victory for the Hellenic League and led to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Gaugamela>

Erbil (Four Heads)

(Four Heads) arba'ū ilū to mean four gods

(Dan 7:6) After this I looked, and behold, another, like a leopard, with four wings of a bird on its back. And the beast had four heads, and dominion was given to it.

The name Erbil was mentioned in Sumerian holy writings of third millennium BC as Urbilum, Urbelum or Urbillum,[5][10] Later, the Akkadians and Assyrians rendered the name as arba'ū ilū to mean four gods

(four heads) arba'ū ilū to mean four gods

The city became a centre for the worship of the Assyro-Babylonian goddess Ishtar.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishtar

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anu

Ishtar was the daughter of Anu.[3] She was particularly worshipped in the Upper Mesopotamian kingdom of Assyria (modern northern Iraq, north east Syria and south east Turkey), particularly at the cities of Nineveh, Ashur and Arbela (modern Erbil), and also in the south Mesopotamian city of Uruk.[3]

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishtar>

Achaemenid Assyria

Babylonian rule was unpopular, but did not last long. In 539, Cyrus the Great defeated the Babylonian King Nabonidus (ironically himself an Assyrian from Harran), took Babylon and made it, along with Assyria, into provinces of the Persian Empire.[15]

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achaemenid_Assyria>

Nabonidus'

background is not clear. He said in his inscriptions that he was of unimportant origins.[2] Similarly, his mother Addagoppe, who lived to an old age and may have been connected to the temple of the moon-god Sîn in Harran, does not mention her family background in her inscriptions.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabonidus>

Addagoppe of Harran

Discovery: Historians have discovered two copies of what appears to be an autobiography of Addagoppe. The first copy, discovered by H. Pognon in 1906, was written on a broken stele excavated at Harran. The second copy, uncovered fifty years later by D.S. Rice, was written on the pavement steps of the northern entrance to the Great Mosque at Harran.[2]

Content: The autobiography starts out with a first-person account by Addagoppe herself and ends with an description of her burial. Because Addagoppe was buried with the honors of a queen, some scholars have suggested that she acted as a regent for Nabonidus when he abandoned Babylon and moved to the oasis of Teima starting in 552.[3]

However, this theory is difficult to reconcile with the chronology Addagoppe presents in her autobiography. She mentions that she was born in the twentieth year of Assyrian King Assurbanipal (about 648 B.C.), and that she cared for the sanctuaries of the moon god Sîn for 95 years. She also mentions that she lived to see her son Nabonidus made king over Babylon, which took place in 556 B.C., making her approximately 92 years old at his coronation, and 96 years old at his departure to Teima.

Addagoppe credited Nabonidus' call to kingship to the moon god Sîn, and her autobiography contains a prayer of praise and thanksgiving to . In response to this prayer, Addagoppe apparently received a prophecy from Sîn in a dream regarding future actions of her son as king:

Through you I will bring about the return of the gods (to) the dwelling in Harran, by means of Nabonidus your son. He will construct Ehulhul; he will complete its work. He will complete the city Harran greater than it was before and restore it. He will bring Sîn, Ningal, Nusku, and Sadarnunna in procession back into the Ehulhul.[4]

Interestingly, other sources reveal that Nabonidus did indeed pay homage to Sîn during his reign as king of Babylon. He gave special attention to the temples of Sîn in Harran and Ur, and even turned the temple of Marduk in Babylon into a sanctuary for Sîn.[5]

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addagoppe_of_Harran>



In Old Persian the city was called Arbila, which can mean "Ar" referring to Aryan and "Bila" meaning dwelling place (which is a cognate with other Indo-European words such as "villa" and "village"), making "Arbila" mean "City of Aryans".

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erbil>

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citadel_of_Erbil

Erbil capital of Adiabene

Adiabene

(from the Ancient Greek Ἀδιαβηνή, Adiabene, itself derived from Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ‎, Ḥaḏy’aḇ or Ḥḏay’aḇ, Old Persian: Nodshirakan,[3] Armenian: Նոր Շիրական, Nor Shirakan) was an ancient kingdom in Assyria,[4][5][6][7] with its capital at Arbela (modern-day Arbil, Iraq).

Adiabene rulers converted to Judaism from Ashurism in the 1st century.[8] Queen Helena of Adiabene (known in Jewish sources as Heleni HaMalka) moved to Jerusalem where she built palaces for herself and her sons, Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II at the northern part of the city of David, south of the Temple Mount, and aided Israel in their war with Rome.[9]

According to the Talmud, both Helena and Monobaz donated large funds for the Temple of Jerusalem.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adiabene>

Helena of Adiabene

(Hebrew: הלני המלכה‎‎) (d. ca. 50-56 CE) was queen of Adiabene and Edessa, and the wife of Monobaz I, her brother, and Abgarus V. With her husband, Monobaz I, she was the mother of Izates II and Monobaz II.

Helena became a convert to Judaism about the year 30 CE. The names of some of her family members and the fact that she was married to her brother[1] indicate an Iranian, Zoroastrian or Magian origin.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helena_of_Adiabene#cite_ref-1>

Izates I

or also considered to be Izates II, was king of Adiabene around the year 15 AD. Very little is known about him with any degree of certainty. He was the son of Helena of Adiabene and Monobaz I (Flavius Josepus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 20, Chapter 2 et seq.).

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Izates_I>

Izates II

(Ἰζάτης), son of Monobaz (Μονόβαζος), or Izates bar Monobaz (also known as Izaates

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Izates_bar_Monobaz>

Monobaz I

(also known as Bazeus or Monobazus) was king of the neo Assyrian Parthian client state of Adiabene in the 20s and 30s of the 1st century CE. He was the husband (and brother) of Queen Helena of Adiabene.[1] With Helena he fathered Izates bar Monobaz and Monobaz II.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monobaz_I>

Abgar V the Black or Abgarus V of Edessa

(Syriac: ܐܒܓܪ ܚܡܝܫܝܐ ܐܘܟܡܐ‎; ʾAḇgar Ḥəmīšāyā ʾUkkāmā, Armenian: Աբգար Ե Եդեսացի; Abgar Ye Yedesatsi, Ancient Greek: Ἄβγαρος Abgaros) (BC 4 – AD 7 and AD 13–50) was a historical Armenian ruler of the kingdom of Osroene,[1] holding his capital at Edessa.[2]

He was converted to Christianity by Thaddeus,[3] one of the Seventy-two Disciples.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abgar_V>

Edessa

(/ɪˈdɛsə/; from Ancient Greek: Ἔδεσσα; Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ‎ Urhāy, Armenian: Եդեսիա Yedesia or Armenian: Ուռհա Uṙha) was an ancient city in upper Mesopotamia, refounded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator, and is now Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edessa>

The history of Şanlıurfa is recorded from the 4th century BC, but may date back at least to 9000 BC, when there is ample evidence for the surrounding sites at Duru, Harran and Nevali Cori.[4] Within the further area of the city are three neolithic sites known: Göbekli Tepe, Gürcütepe and the city itself, where the life-sized limestone "Urfa statue" was found during an excavation in Balıklıgöl.[5] The city was one of several in the upper Euphrates-Tigris basin, the fertile crescent where agriculture began.

According to Jewish and Muslim tradition, Urfa is Ur Kasdim, the hometown of Abraham. This identification was disputed by Leonard Woolley, the excavator of the Sumerian city of Ur in 1927 and scholars remain divided on the issue. Urfa is also one of several cities that have traditions associated with Job.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Eanl%C4%B1urfa>

City of Edessa

Main article: Edessa, Mesopotamia

Although the site of Urfa has been inhabited since prehistoric times, the modern city was founded in 304 B.C by Seleucus I Nicator and named after the ancient capital of Macedonia.

In the late 2nd century, as the Seleucid dynasty disintegrated, it became the capital of the Nabataean Abgar dynasty, which was successively a Parthian, Armenian, and Roman client state and eventually a Roman province.

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%9Eanl%C4%B1urfa>

Ur Kaśdim

(Hebrew: אוּר כַּשְׂדִים‎‎ ’Ūr Ḵaśdîm), commonly translated as Ur of the Chaldees, is a city mentioned in the Hebrew Bible as the birthplace of the Jewish patriarch Abraham. One of the traditional sites of Abraham's birth is placed in the vicinity of the Assyrian city of Edessa. Some Islamic and Jewish authorities, such as Maimonides and Josephus, placed Ur Kaśdim at various Assyrian or southeast Anatolian sites such as Urkesh, Urartu, Urfa or Kutha. Recent archaeology work places the location in present day Nasiriyah, Iraq where the ancient Ziggurat of Ur is located

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ur_Ka%C5%9Bdim>

Ansar al Islam

During the US occupation of Iraq, sporadic attacks hit Erbil. Parallel bomb attacks against Eid celebrations killed 109 people on February 1, 2004.[29] Responsibility was claimed by the Ansar al-Sunnah,[29] and stated to be in solidarity with Ansar al-Islam.[citation needed] A suicide bombing on May 4, 2005 killed 60 civilians and injured 150 more outside a police recruiting center.[30]

From <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erbil>

Ansar al Islam

http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=4213&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=182&no_cache=1#.V6sz1K0THcJ
Adiabene

The Biblical Habor is identified with Adiabene (compare Yeb. 16b et seq., Yalḳ. Dan. 1064), but in Yer. Meg. i. 71b with Riphath (Gen. x. 3; compare also Gen. R. xxxvii.).

In the Targum to Jer. li. 27, Ararat, Mini, and Ashkenaz are paraphrased by , , i.e., Kurdistan, Armenia, and Adiabene; while in Ezek. xxvii. 23

are interpreted by the Aramaic translator as "Ḥarwan, Nisibis, and Adiabene."

From <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/801-adiabene>

Riphath (Gen. x. 3; compare also Gen. R. xxxvii.).

(Gen 10:3) The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

H7384 רִיפַת Riyphath (ree-fath') n/p.

דִּיפַת Diyphath (dee-fath') [probably by orthographical error]

Riphath, a grandson of Japheth and his descendants.

[of foreign origin]

KJV: Riphath.

(1Chr 1:6) The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

1 The descendants of Gomer were all northern tribes of the Upper Euphrates.

2 Askenaz was the ancestor of a northern branch of Indo-Germanic tribes, possibly Scythians. For discussion see E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 63.

3 The descendants of Riphath lived in a district north of the road from Haran to Carchemish.

4 Togarmah is also mentioned in Ezek 38:6, where it refers to Til-garimmu, the capital of Kammanu, which bordered Tabal in eastern Turkey. See E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 26, n. 28.

(Jer 51:27) “Set up a standard on the earth; blow the trumpet among the nations; prepare the nations for war against her; summon against her the kingdoms, Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz; appoint a marshal against her; bring up horses like bristling locusts.

Beth-togarmah is the Turkic People and ancestors (See links at the end)

(Ezek 27:14) From Beth-togarmah they exchanged horses, war horses, and mules for your wares.

(Ezek 38:6) Gomer and all his hordes; Beth-togarmah from the uttermost parts of the north with all his hordes— many peoples are with you.

Togarmah is also mentioned in Ezek 38:6, where it refers to Til-garimmu, the capital of Kammanu, which bordered Tabal in eastern Turkey. See E. M. Yamauchi, Foes from the Northern Frontier (SBA), 26, n. 28.

Rechoboth is Adiabene

(Gen 10:11) Out of that land H776 went forth H3318 Asshur H804, and builded H1129 Nineveh H5210, and the city H5892 Rehoboth H7344, and Calah H3625,

H7344 רְחֹבוֹת Rchobowth (rech-o-ɓoth') n/l.

רְחֹבֹת Rchoboth (rech-o-ɓoth')

1. streets.

2. Rechoboth, a place in Assyria and one in Israel.

[plural of H7339]

KJV: Rehoboth.

Root(s): H7339

רחבת

(Gen 10:11) מן הארץ ההוא יצא אשור ויבן את נינוה ואת רחבת עיר ואת כלח׃

(Gen 10:11) Out of that land H776 went forth H3318 Asshur H804, and builded H1129 Nineveh H5210, and the city H5892 Rehoboth H7344, and Calah H3625,

(Gen 34:21) האנשים האלה שלמים הם אתנו וישבו בארץ ויסחרו אתה והארץ הנה רחבת ידים לפניהם את בנתם נקח לנו לנשים ואת בנתינו נתן להם׃

(Gen 34:21) “These men are at peace with us; let them dwell in the land and trade in it, for behold, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters as wives, and let us give them our daughters.

(Judg 18:10) כבאכם תבאו אל עם בטח והארץ רחבת ידים כי נתנה אלהים בידכם מקום אשר אין שם מחסור כל דבר אשר בארץ׃

(Judg 18:10) As soon as you go, you will come to an unsuspecting people. The land is spacious, for God has given it into your hands, a place where there is no lack of anything that is in the earth.”

(1Chr 4:40) וימצאו מרעה שמן וטוב והארץ רחבת ידים ושקטת ושלוה כי מן חם הישבים שם לפנים׃

(1Chr 4:40) where they found rich, good pasture, and the land was very broad, quiet, and peaceful, for the former inhabitants there belonged to Ham.

(Neh 7:4) והעיר רחבת ידים וגדולה והעם מעט בתוכה ואין בתים בנוים׃

(Neh 7:4) The city was wide and large, but the people within it were few, and no houses had been rebuilt.

(Isa 22:18) צנוף יצנפך צנפה כדור אל ארץ רחבת ידים שמה תמות ושמה מרכבות כבודך קלון בית אדניך׃

(Isa 22:18) and whirl you around and around, and throw you like a ball into a wide land. There you shall die, and there shall be your glorious chariots, you shame of your master's house.


The Biblical Geography of Central Asia: With a General Volume 1

By Ern. Frid. Car Rosenmüller Page 153

The Biblical Habor is identified with Adiabene

H2249 חָבוֹר Chabowr (chaw-ɓore') n/l.

1. united.

2. Chabor, a river of Assyria.

[from H2266]

KJV: Habor.

Root(s): H2266

(2Kgs 17:6) In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria, and he carried the Israelites away to Assyria and placed them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

(2Kgs 18:11) The king of Assyria carried the Israelites away to Assyria and put them in Halah, and on the Habor, the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes,

(1Chr 5:26) So the God of Israel stirred up the spirit of Pul king of Assyria, the spirit of Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and he took them into exile, namely, the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh, and brought them to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan, to this day.

Root H2266

H2266 חָבַר chabar (chaw-ɓar') v.

1. to join (literally or figuratively).2. (specifically) to fascinate (by means of spells).

[a primitive root]

KJV: charm(- er), be compact, couple (together), have fellowship with, heap up, join (self, together), league.

(Dan 11:23) And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully, and he shall become strong with a small people.

(Dan 11:23) And after the league H2266 [made] with him he shall work H6213 deceitfully H4820: for he shall come up H5927, and shall become strong H6105 with a small H4592 people H1471.

הִֽתְחַבְּר֥וּת H2266

(Dan 11:23) ומן התחברות אליו יעשה מרמה ועלה ועצם במעט גוי׃

התחברות

(Dan 11:23) ומן התחברות אליו יעשה מרמה ועלה ועצם במעט גוי׃

(Dan 11:23) And from the time that an alliance is made with him he shall act deceitfully, and he shall become strong with a small people.

(1Cor 10:16) כוס הברכה אשר אנחנו מברכים הלא היא התחברות דם המשיח והלחם אשר אנחנו בצעים הלא הוא התחברות גוף המשיח׃

(1Cor 10:16) The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a participation in the body of Christ?

(2Cor 6:14) אל תהיו משכי על זר עם חסרי אמונה כי אי זה שתפות יש לצדקה עם העול ואי זה התחברות לאור עם החשך׃

(2Cor 6:14) Do not be unequally yoked with unbelievers. For what partnership has righteousness with lawlessness? Or what fellowship has light with darkness?

(Phil 2:1) לכן אם יש תוכחה במשיח אם תנחומות האהבה אם התחברות הרוח אם רחמים וחמלה׃

(Phil 2:1) So if there is any encouragement in Christ, any comfort from love, any participation in the Spirit, any affection and sympathy,

(Phlm 1:6) למען אשר תאמץ התחברות אמונתך בדעת כל טוב אשר בכם לשם המשיח׃

(Phlm 1:6) and I pray that the sharing of your faith may become effective for the full knowledge of every good thing that is in us for the sake of Christ.

(1John 1:6) אם נאמר כי יש לנו התחברות עמו ונתהלך בחשך הננו כזבים ופעלתנו איננה אמת׃

(1John 1:6) If we say we have fellowship with him while we walk in darkness, we lie and do not practice the truth.

In the Targum to Jer. li. 27, Ararat, Mini, and Ashkenaz are paraphrased by , i.e., Kurdistan, Armenia, and Adiabene

(Jer 51:27) “Set up a standard on the earth; blow the trumpet among the nations; prepare the nations for war against her; summon against her the kingdoms, Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz; appoint a marshal against her; bring up horses like bristling locusts.

Genesis 10:3 The sons of Gomer were Askenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

1 Chronicles 1:6 The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

While in Ezek. xxvii. 23 are interpreted by the Aramaic translator as "Ḥarwan, Nisibis, and Adiabene."

(Ezek 27:23) Haran, Canneh, Eden, traders of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad traded with you.

23 חָרָ֤ן H2771 וְ·כַנֵּה֙ H3656 וָ·עֶ֔דֶן H5729

חרן וכנה ועדן

H2771 חָרָן Charan (chaw-rawn') n/l.

1. parched.2. Haran (Charan), the name of a man and also of a place.

[from H2787]

KJV: Haran.

Root(s): H2787

See also: G5488

H3656 כַּנֶּה Kanneh (kan-neh') n/l.

Canneh, a place in Assyria.

[for H3641]

KJV: Canneh.

Root(s): H3641

H5729 עֶדֶן `Eden (eh'-den) n/l.

1. pleasure.2. Eden, a place in Mesopotamia.

[from H5727]

KJV: Eden.

Root(s): H5727

ועדן

(2Chr 29:12) ויקמו הלוים מחת בן עמשי ויואל בן עזריהו מן בני הקהתי ומן בני מררי קיש בן עבדי ועזריהו בן יהללאל ומן הגרשני יואח בן זמה ועדן בן יואח׃

(2Chr 29:12) Then the Levites arose, Mahath the son of Amasai, and Joel the son of Azariah, of the sons of the Kohathites; and of the sons of Merari, Kish the son of Abdi, and Azariah the son of Jehallelel; and of the Gershonites, Joah the son of Zimmah, and Eden the son of Joah;

H5731 עֵדֶן `Eden (ay'-den) n/p.

Eden, the region of Adam's home.

[the same as H5730 (masculine)]

KJV: Eden.

Root(s): H5730

(Ezek 27:23) חרן וכנה ועדן רכלי שבא אשור כלמד רכלתך׃

(Ezek 27:23) Haran, Canneh, Eden, traders of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad traded with you.

(Dan 7:12) ושאר חיותא העדיו שלטנהון וארכה בחיין יהיבת להון עד זמן ועדן׃

(Dan 7:12) As for the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away, but their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.

(Dan 7:12) As concerning the rest H7606 of the beasts H2423, they had their dominion H7985 taken away H5709: yet their lives H2417 were prolonged H3052 for H5705 a season H2166 and time H5732.

(Dan 7:12) וּ·שְׁאָר֙ H7606 חֵֽיוָתָ֔·א H2423 הֶעְדִּ֖יו H5709 שָׁלְטָנְ·ה֑וֹן H7985 וְ·אַרְכָ֧ה H754 בְ·חַיִּ֛ין H2417 יְהִ֥יבַת H3052 לְ·ה֖וֹן H0 עַד־ H5705 זְמַ֥ן H2166 וְ·עִדָּֽן׃ H5732

H5732 עִדָּן `iddan (id-dawn') n-m.

1. a set time.2. (technically) a year.

[(Aramaic) from a root corresponding to that of H5708]

KJV: time.

Root(s): H5708

ADIABENE: By: Richard Gottheil

A district in Mesopotamia between the Upper Zab (Lycus) and the Lower Zab (Caprus), though Ammianus ("Hist." xviii., vii. 1) speaks of Nineveh, Ecbatana, and Gaugamela as also belonging to it. For some centuries, beginning with the first century B.C., it was semi-independent. In the Talmudic writings the name occurs as , and , which is parallel to its Syriac form "Ḥadyab" or "Ḥedayab." Its chief city was Arbela (Arba-ilu), where Mar 'Uḳba had a school, or the neighboring Ḥazzah, by which name the Arabs also called Arbela (Yaḳuṭ, "Geographisches Wörterbuch," ii. 263; Payne-Smith, "Thesaurus Syriacus," under "Ḥadyab"; Hoffmann, "Auszüge aus Syrischen Akten," pp. 241, 243). In Ḳid. 72a the Biblical Habor is identified with Adiabene (compare Yeb. 16b et seq., Yalḳ. Dan. 1064), but in Yer. Meg. i. 71b with Riphath (Gen. x. 3; compare also Gen. R. xxxvii.). In the Targum to Jer. li. 27, Ararat, Mini, and Ashkenaz are paraphrased by , , i.e., Kurdistan, Armenia, and Adiabene; while in Ezek. xxvii. 23 are interpreted by the Aramaic translator as "Ḥarwan, Nisibis, and Adiabene."

Relation to Neighboring Kingdoms.

Under the Persian kings Adiabene seems for a time to have been a vassal state of the Persian empire. Ardashir III. (361-338 B.C.), before he came to the throne, had the title "King of Ḥadyab" (Nöldeke, "Geschichte der Perser," p. 70). The little kingdom attained a certain prominence on account of its kings during the first century. Izates became a Jew. His conversion took place before he ascended the throne and while he lived in Charax Spasinu. At about the same time his mother, Helena, was also converted. The times were troublous ones; for Parthian kings and counter-kings followed each other in quick succession. Artaban III. was king of Atropatene. He had succeeded Vonones, who, having been educated entirely at Rome, was unsympathetic toward the Parthians. Artaban soon had to flee to Hyrcania to escape from the rival king, Tiridates III. He returned, however, in 36, and, being afraid of a conspiracy, took refuge at the court of Izates, who was powerful enough to induce the Parthians to reinstate Artaban. For this service certain kingly honors were granted Izates, and the city of Nisibis was added to his dominions. However, in 45, Gotarzes, an adopted son of Artaban, was raised to the throne by the nobles, in preference to Vardanes, his half-brother. In 49 Meherdates (Mithridates V.), a son of Vonones, was sent from Rome by Claudius to take possession of the throne of Parthia. Izates played a double game, though he secretly sided with Gotarzes. A few years later, Vologeses I. set out with the intention of invading Adiabene and of punishing Izates; but a force of Dacians and Scythians had just entered Parthia, and Vologeses had to return home.

Izates was followed on the throne by his elder brother, Monobaz II. It is related that in the year 61 he sent a contingent of soldiers to Armenia to assist the Parthian candidate, Tiridates, against Tigranes, who had made an incursion into the territory of Adiabene. The troops of Monobaz, however, were beaten back at Tigranocerta. Monobaz was present when peace was concluded at Rhandea between Parthia and Rome in the year 63. The chief opponent of Trajan in Mesopotamia during the year 115 was the last king of independent Adiabene, Meharaspes. He had made common cause with Ma'nu (Mannus) of Singár (Singara). Trajan invaded Adiabene, and made it part of the Roman province of Assyria; under Hadrian in 117, however, Rome gave up possession of Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia. In the summer of 195 Severus was again warring in Mesopotamia, and in 196 three divisions of the Roman army fell upon Adiabene. According to Dio Cassius, Antoninus took Arbela in the year 216, and searched all the graves there, wishing to ascertain whether the Arsacide kings were buried there. In later times Adiabene became an archbishopric, with the seat of the metropolitan at Arbela (Hoffmann, "Akten," pp. 259 et seq.).

Conversion of Some of Izates' Subjects.

It is impossible to tell how far the inhabitants of Adiabene had followed the example of their king and become Judaized. Josephus ("B. J." preface, § 2) refers to the "Adiabenoi" as Jews. Both Queen Helena and Izates showered presents upon Jerusalem, and the queen took the king's sons there to be educated. The remains of Helena and Izates were sent by Monobaz II. to Jerusalem for burial. There seems to be no doubt that there were a number of Adiabene Jews in Jerusalem, who probably belonged to the princely household. Josephus knew several, and in"B. J." ii. 19, § 2 mentions a Kenedeus and a Monobaz as aiding bravely in the defense of Jerusalem against the Romans, and "the sons and brethren of Izates the king . . . were bound . . . and led to Rome, in order to make them hostages for their country's fidelity to the Romans" ("B. J." vi. 6, § 4). A certain Jacob Ḥadyaba is mentioned in B. B. 26b; and also Zuga of Ḥadyab, or Zawa (Heilprin, "Seder ha-Dorot," ed. 1882, ii. 115). The Talmud mentions a certain kind of scorpion in Adiabene (Bab. Shab. 121b; in Yer. Shab. xiv. 14b, the reading is incorrect) that might be killed on the Sabbath day because of its venomous character. It also states (Bab. Men. 32b) that the followers of Monobaz (Yer. Meg. iv., end,

!) were accustomed to fix the mezuzah upon a staff, and to set the staff upright in any inn in which they happened to pass the night (Tosef., Meg. iv. [iii.] 30; Yer. Meg. iv. 75c).

Traditions.

All manner of false traditions have gathered around these statements. The Armenian historian Moses of Chorene, who wrote in the fourth or fifth century, has transferred the story of Izates' intervention in Parthia to Abgar, one of the kings of Edessa, making Helena the wife of Abgar, Ukkama (Von Gutschmid, "Kleine Schriften," iii. 45), probably because Abgar VII. was the son of Izates (Duval, "Histoire d'Edesse," p. 51). In later Jewish tradition Monobaz is made out to be a son of Agrippa II. (Ibn Daud, "Sefer ha-Ḳabbalah," in Neubauer, "Med. Jew. Chron." i. 51; compare also "Seder 'Olam," ib. 170; and "Seder 'Olam Zuṭṭa," in one recension, ib. 71, which in another recension (ib. 75), however, is said to be impossible. The same is to be found in Zacuto's "Yuḥasin," ed. Filipowski, 93). According to Ẓemaḥ Gaon, he was a son of Herod ("Yuḥasin," 93, 2, below).

Bibliography:
Chief authority is Josephus (Ant. xx. 2, § 4;
B. J. ii. 19, § 2; iv. 9, § 11; v. 2, § 2; 3, § 3; 4, § 2; 6, § 1), who probably got his information from Adiabene Jews in Jerusalem (Von Gutschmid, Kleine Schriften, iii. 4).
Notices may also be gathered from Pliny, Historia Naturalis, v. 66, vi. 44 et seq.;
Ammianus, History, xviii. 7, § 1; xxiii. 6, § 21;
Strabo, Geography, xvi. 745 et seq.;
Brüll, Adiabene, in Jahrb. i. 58 et seq.;
Grätz, in Monatsschrift, 1877, xxvi. 241 et seq., 289 et seq.;
Von Gutschmid, Gesch. Irans, pp. 140 et seq.;
Schürer, Gesch. ii. 562.

From <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/801-adiabene>

IZATES: By: Richard Gottheil, Isaac Broydé

Proselyte; King of Adiabene; son of Queen Helena and Monobaz I.; born in the year 1 of the common era; died in 55. While in Charan Spasinu, whither he had been sent by his father, a Jewish merchant named Ananias acquainted him with the tenets of the Jewish religion, in which he became deeply interested. His mother had been previously won over to Judaism without his knowledge. On ascending the throne on the death of his father, Izates discovered the conversion of his mother; and he himself intended to adopt Judaism, and even to submit to circumcision. He was, however, dissuaded from this step both by his teacher Ananias and by his mother, but was ultimately persuaded thereto by another Jew, Eleazar.

For some time Izates enjoyed peace; and he was so highly respected that he was chosen as arbitrator between the Parthian king Artaban III. and the rebellious nobles of that monarch. But when several of Izates' relatives openly acknowledged their conversion to Judaism, some of the nobles of Adiabene secretly induced Abia, King of Arabia, to declare war against him. Izates defeated his enemy, who in despair committed suicide. The nobles then conspired with Volageses, King of Parthia, but the latter was at the last moment prevented from carrying out his plans, and Izates continued to reign undisturbed for twenty-four years. He left twenty-four sons and twenty-four daughters. Izates' remains and those of Queen Helena were sent by Monobaz II. to Jerusalem for burial. For the account of Izates' conversion given in the Midrash see Gen. R. xlvi. Compare Adiabene; Ananias; Helena, and the bibliography there cited.

From <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8358-izates>

HELENA: By: Richard Gottheil, M. Seligsohn

Queen of Adiabene, wife of Monobaz I., and mother of Monobaz II.; died about 56 C.E. Her name and the fact that she was her husband's sister (Josephus, "Ant." xx. 2, § 1) show that she was of Greek origin. She became a convert to Judaism about the year 30. She was noted for her generosity; during a famine at Jerusalem she sent to Alexandria for corn and to Cyprus for dried figs for distribution among the sufferers from the famine (Josephus, l.c. § 5). In the Talmud, however (B. B. 11a), this is laid to the credit of Monobaz II.; and though Brüll ("Jahrb." i. 76) regards the reference to Monobaz as indicating the dynasty, still Rashi maintains the simpler explanation—that Monobaz himself is meant. The Talmud speaks also of important presents which the queen gave to the Temple at Jerusalem (Yoma 37a): "Helena had a golden candlestick [] made over the door of the Temple," to which statement is added (ib. 37b; Tosef. 82) that when the sun rose its rays were reflected from the candlestick and everybody knew that it was the time for reading the Shema'. She also made a golden plate on which was written the passage of the Pentateuch (Num. v. 19-22) which the high priest read when a wife suspected of infidelity was brought before him (Yoma l.c.). In Yer. Yoma iii. 8 the candlestick and the plate are confused. The strictness with which she observed the Jewish law is thus instanced in the Talmud: "Her son [Izates] having gone to war, Helena made a vow that if he should return safe, she would become a Nazarite for the space of seven years. She fulfilled her vow, and at the end of seven years went to Palestine. The Hillelites told her that she must observe her vow anew, and she therefore lived as a Nazarite for seven more years. At the end of the second seven years she became impure, and she had to repeat her Nazariteship, thus being a Nazarite for twenty-one years. R. Judah said she was a Nazarite for fourteen years only" (Nazir 19b). "R. Judah said: 'The booth [erected for the Feast of Tabernacles] of Queen Helena in Lydda was higher than twenty ells. The rabbis used to go in and out and make no remark about it'" (Suk. 2b).

When Helena died Monobaz II. caused her remains to be removed to Jerusalem, where they were buried in the pyramidal tomb which she had constructed during her lifetime, three stadia north of Jerusalem (comp. Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." ii., ch. 12). The catacombs are now called the "Tombs of, the Kings." A sarcophagus with the inscription , in Hebrew and Syriac, found some years ago, is supposed to be that of Helena ("C. I. S." ii. 156). See Adiabene.

Bibliography:
Josephus, Ant. xx. 4, § 3;
Brüll's Jahrb. i. 70-78;
Grätz, Gesch. 3d ed., iii. 403-406, 414;
Schürer, Gesch. 3d ed., iii. 119-122.

From <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7525-helena>

ANANIAS OF ADIABENE: By: H. G. Enelow

A Jewish merchant, probably of Hellenic origin, who, in the opening years of the common era, was prominent at the court of Abennerig (), king of Charax-Spasini (Charakene, Mesene). He was a zealous propagandist of Judaism among the pagans, and was instrumental in the conversion of numerous native and foreign inhabitants of Charax, which, situated at the confluence of the two arms of the Tigris, was at the time a great mercantile center. Among his most prominent converts were several women of high position at the court, particularly the princess Symacho, the king's daughter. This princess had been married to Izates, a young prince who had been sent to Abennerig's court by his parents, Monobaz and Helena, the rulers of Adiabene. Through his wife, Izates' attention was directed to Ananias, with whom he formed an acquaintance that eventually ripened into a strong attachment. Ere long (about the year 18), Ananias had won the prince over to the Jewish faith. Moreover, Izates was named as successor to the throne by Monobaz, who, in so doing, passed over his elder sons. Upon his accession (about 22), Izates, in order to show his genuine attachment to the new religion, declared his determination to undergo the rite of circumcision. Helena opposed this, fearing that the adoption of foreign ceremonies might arouse against the young king the indignation of his pagan subjects. Ananias, who had come to Adiabene with Izates, supported Helena's contention, arguing that such a step on the part of the king would endanger the life of his Jewish instructor, and, further, that circumcision was not vital to the fulfilment of the Jewish religion and the worship of God.

Izates seemed convinced by the latter argument, until there came to his court another Jew, Eleazar, who, in contradistinction to Ananias' Hellenic leniency, was a rigorous legalist from Galilee. He persuaded Izates to undergo the rite (Gen. R. xlvi. 8). Ananias and Helena were strongly agitated when Izates disclosed his action, but the trouble they predicted did not immediately ensue. Whether Ananias made further converts in Izates' country is not stated (see Adiabene; Helena; Izates; Monobaz II.).

Bibliography:
Josephus, Ant. xx. 2 et seq., Brüll, Jahrbücher, 1874, i. 58 et seq.;
Delitzsch, Das Königshaus von Adiabene, in Deutsche Revue, 1885, pp. 187 et seq.;
idem, in Saat auf Hoffnung, 1887, pp. 178 et seq.;
Grätz, Gesch. d. Juden, 4th ed., iii. 404 et seq.;
Hamburger, R. B. T. ii. 556 et seq.;
Schürer, Gesch. 3d ed., iii. 119 et seq.

From <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/1468-ananias-of-adiabene>

The Biblical Geography of Central Asia: With a General Volume 1

By Ern. Frid. Car Rosenmüller Page 153

https://books.google.com/books?id=xncOAAAAQAAJ&lpg=RA1-PA152&ots=YQa7Q8CRS6&dq=Rechoboth%2C%20a%20place%20in%20Assyria&pg=RA1-PA153#v=onepage&q=Rechoboth,%20a%20place%20in%20Assyria&f=false

Turkic Peoples

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkic_peoples#Etymology

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Togarmah#Turkic_history

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tegarama

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