Skip to main content

Look To Jezreel

clip_image001

IDF exposes Jenin weapons factory

israelnationalnews.com · April 18, 2018

Heavy equipment to produce illegal weapons confiscated during raid by Menashe Brigade forces on Jenin workshop.

Menashe Regional Brigade forces operated last night in the Jenin area during which they raided an illegal weapons factory.

The forces confiscated a large amount of equipment: welding machines, discs, lathes, and other tools used to manufacture weapons. The IDF Spokesman's Office said "the IDF will continue to act to eliminate terrorist equipment as part of the war against weaponry to protect the security of Israeli residents."

Additionally, during the night, an IDF force identified and shot five Arabs who approached the security fence in the southern Gaza Strip, at least one of whom was armed.

clip_image002

Boy and his uncle killed in double murder in Israeli-Arab town

israelnationalnews.com · April 18, 2018
clip_image003
A 49-year-old man and his 13-year-old nephew were shot to death in the Israeli-Arab city of Umm el-Fahm late Tuesday night during a wedding rehearsal dinner in what police believe to be a case of double murder resulting from a feud between two families.

MDA emergency first responders were called to the scene Tuesday night, and attempted to resuscitate the two shooting victims before evacuating them to HaEmek Medical Center in the northern town of Afula. Both victims were declared dead en route to the hospital.
Three other people were also wounded in the shooting, and were evacuated to the hospital for treatment.

The killings are just the latest incident in a violent crime wave in Umm el-Fahm.
Two weeks ago, Sheikh Muhammad Saadah, the 45-year-old imam of a local mosque, was gunned down at the entrance to the mosque shortly after morning prayers.

“If people are shooting at mosques, we’re all in danger,” Saadah’s family said.
The city council and a committee of local parents planned to shutter schools and hold a general strike on Thursday, in protest of the killings and what some locals described as police inaction in the face of the ongoing violent crime wave.

Dozens of Umm el-Fahm residents protested outside of a local police station, demanding law enforcement officials crack down on gun violence in the city.

“The statistics which I received from the Internal Security Ministry reveal that out of 520 investigations opened over the past three years into incidents involving gunfire in Umm el-Fahm, just six resulted in indictments,” said Joint List MK Yousef Jabareen, Channel 10 reported.

“That reveals a dangerous failure by law enforcement authorities to handle the violent crime wave in the city of Umm el-Fahm. Criminals feel like they can act with a free hand, that there is no law and no consequences, so long as their victims are from the Arab community.”

Jenin - Wikipedia

Wikipedia · by Jenin
This article is about the city in the West Bank. For other uses, see Jenin (disambiguation).

Jenin (/dʒəˈniːn/; Arabic: جنين (help·info)‎ Ǧinīn) is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank. It serves as the administrative center of the Jenin Governorate and is a major center for the surrounding towns.[citation needed] In 2007 the city had a population of 39,004.[1] Jenin is under the administration of the Palestinian Authority.

Etymology

Jenin was known in ancient times as the village of "Ein-Jenin" or "Tel Jenin".[3] Tell Jenin, is located at the center of what is today Jenin's business district.[4]

History
Jenin has been identified as the place Gina mentioned in the Amarna letters from the 14th century BCE.[5]

Four terracotta lamps of Phoenician origin dated to the 8th century BCE were discovered in Ain Jenin by archaeologist G. I. Harding, and are interpreted as attesting to some form of contact and exchange between the residents of Jenin at that time and those of Phoenicia.[6] During the Roman era, Jenin was called "Ginae," and was settled exclusively by Samaritans (Heb. כותים). The people of Galilee were disposed to pass through their city during the annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem.[7]
Ceramics dating from the Byzantine era have been found here.[8]

Mamluk era

Dimashki, writing around year 1300, said that after the rise of "Turk power", the empire was divided into nine (sub-) "Kingdoms", or Mamlakat. Jenin was listed as one of the places belonging to the (sub-) Kingdom centred at Safad.[9]

Yaqut described Jenin as "a small and beautiful town, lying between Nabulus and Baisan, in the Jordan Province. There is much water, and many springs are found here, and often have I visited it."[10]

In the late 13th century, Mamluk emirs stationed at Jenin were ordered by Qalawun, the sultan, "to ride every day with their troops before the fortress of 'Akka, so as to protect the coast and the merchants."[11]

Ottoman era
clip_image004
Painting of Jenin by David Roberts, 1839
clip_image005
Street scene in Jenin, 1917. An Ottoman Army soldier (center left) with a local resident (center right)

During Ottoman rule in Palestine (1517-1918), Jenin, Lajjun and the Carmel area, were for part of the 17th century ruled by the Bedouin Turabay family.[12] In the census of 1596, Jenin was located in the nahiya of Jenin, in the liwa of Lajjun. It had a population of 8 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax rate of 25 % on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, summer crops, goats and beehives, in addition to occasional revenues; a total of 2,000 akçe. All of the revenue went to a Waqf in the name of Sultan Guri.[13]

In the mid-18th century, Jenin was designated the administrative capital of the combined districts of Lajjun and Ajlun.[14] There are indications that the area comprising Jenin and Nablus remained functionally autonomous under Ottoman rule and that the empire struggled to collect taxes there. During the Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt which extended into Syria and Palestine in 1799, a local official from Jenin wrote a poem enumerating and calling upon local Arab leaders to resist Bonaparte, without mentioning the Sultan or the need to protect the Ottoman Empire.[15]

In the late 19th century, some members of the Jarrar family, who formed part of the mallakin (elite land-owning families) in Jenin, cooperated with merchants in Haifa to set up an export enterprise there.[16] During the Ottoman era, Jenin was plagued by local warfare between members of the same clan.[17] The French explorer Guérin visited in 1870.[18] In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Jenin as "The capital of the district, the seat of a Caimacam, a town of about 3,000 inhabitants, with a small bazaar. The houses are well built of stone. There are two families of Roman Catholics; the remainder are Moslems. A spring rises east of the town and is conducted to a large masonry reservoir, near the west side, of good squared stonework, with a long stone trough. This reservoir was built by 'And el Hady, Mudir of Acre, in the first half of the century [..], north of the town is the little mosque of 'Ezz ed Din, with a good- sized dome and a minaret."[19]
British Mandate period
clip_image006
Buildings in Jenin dynamited by British forces, 1938

According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Jenin had a population of 2,637, consisting of 2,307 Muslims, 7 Jews, 108 Christians, 212 Hindus and 3 Sikhs.[20] From 1936, Jenin became a center of rebellion against the British Mandatory authorities. By the summer of 1938, residents of the city embarked on "an intensified campaign of murder, intimidation and sabotage" that caused the British administration "grave concern," according to a British report to the League of Nations.[21] The city played an important role in the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine, prompted by the death of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in a fire-fight with British colonial police at the nearby town of Ya'bad months prior to the start of the revolt. On 25 August 1938, the day after the British Assistant District Commissioner was assassinated in his Jenin office, a large British force with explosives entered the town. After ordering the inhabitants to leave, about one quarter of the town was blown up.[22]

Jenin was used by Fawzi al-Qawuqji's Arab Liberation Army as a base.

1948 War
In the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the city was defended by the Iraqi Army, then captured briefly by the forces from Israel's Carmeli Brigade during the "Ten Days' fighting" following the cancellation of the first cease-fire. Prior to the battle, the city's residents fled temporarily.[23] The offensive was actually a feint designed to draw Arab forces away from the critical Siege of Jerusalem, and gains in that sector were quickly abandoned when Arab reinforcements arrived.
Jordanian control

The Jenin refugee camp was founded in 1953 by Jordan to house displaced Palestinians who fled or were expelled during the 1948 War. For 19 years, the city was under Jordanian control. A war cemetery for Iraqi soldiers and local combatants is located on the outskirts of Jenin.
The Jordanian census of 1961 found 14,402 inhabitants in Jenin.[24]

Contemporary period
clip_image007
A street in Jenin, 2011

In 1967, on the first day of the Six-Day War, Jenin was occupied by the Israel Defense Forces.
In 1996, Israel handed over control of the city to the Palestinian National Authority in keeping with the Oslo Accords. Known to Palestinians as "the martyrs' capital", the camp's militants, some 200 armed men, included members of Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Tanzim, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) and Hamas.[25][26] By Israel's count, at least 28 suicide bombers were dispatched from the Jenin camp from 2000–2003 during the Second Intifada.[25] Israeli army weekly Bamahane attributes at least 31 militant attacks, totaling 124 victims, to Jenin during the same period, more than any other city in the West Bank.[27]

During the al-Aqsa Intifada, Israel launched Operation Defensive Shield with the stated aim of dismantling terrorist infrastructure so as to curb suicide bombings and other militant activities. The army encircled and entered six major Palestinian population centers in the West Bank, among them Jenin. During the Battle of Jenin in April 2002, 23 Israeli soldiers and 52 Palestinians, including civilians[28][29] , were killed.[30] Human Rights Watch reported that the refugee camp, which was the major battleground, suffered extensive damage. Witnesses stated unarmed people were shot and denied medical treatment, as a result died. Human Rights Watch have regarded many killings to be unlawful such as the death of a 57-year-old wheelchair bound man who was shot and run over by a tank despite having attached a white flag on his wheelchair. A 37-year-old man who was paralysed was crushed under the rubble of his house, his family was refused to be allowed to remove his body. A 14-year-old boy was killed as he travelled to purchase groceries during the temporary relief of the curfew that was imposed by the army. Medical staff were shot at (one nurse killed) while trying to reach the wounded even after clearly being in uniform displaying the red crescent symbol.[31] There have also been reports of Israeli soldiers using Palestinians as human shields, one father described how a soldier rested his rifle on his 14-year-old son's shoulder as he shot.[32] Israel denied the entry of rescue teams and journalists into Jenin even after they withdrew. Over the following years, Jenin was subject to extended curfews and targeted killings.

During a gun-battle with Islamic Jihad militants whom Israel says were firing at troops from inside the UN compound, an Israeli military sniper shot and killed a UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) employee, Iain Hook (54) on November 22, 2002.[33] The sniper reportedly mistook a cellphone in Hook's hands for a gun or grenade.[34]

In the framework of the Valley of Peace initiative, a joint Arab-Israeli project is under way to promote tourism in the Jenin region.[35] In 2010, 600 new businesses opened in Jenin.[36] The Canaan Fair Trade is headquartered in Jenin.[37] Director of the Freedom Theater in Jenin, Juliano Mer-Khamis, was killed by masked gunmen in the city in April 2011. Mer-Khamis co-founded the theatre with Zakaria Zubeidi, former military chief of the al-Aqsa Brigades who had renounced violence.[38]

Geography

Jenin is situated at the foot of the rugged northernmost hills (Jabal Nablus) of the West Bank, and along the southern edge of the Jezreel Valley (Marj Ibn Amer),[39] which the city overlooks.[40] Its highest elevation is about 250 meters above sea level and its lowest areas are 90 meters above sea level.[41] Immediately southwest of Jenin is the Sahl Arraba plain (Dothan Valley), while further south is the Marj Sanur valley.[42] About 1.5 kilometers to Jenin's east is Mount Gilboa (Jabal Faqqua).[43]

Jenin is 42 kilometers north of Nablus, 18 kilometers to the south of Afula, and 51 kilometers southeast of Haifa.[44] The nearest localities are Umm at-Tut and Jalqamus to the southeast, Qabatiya and Zababdeh to the south, Burqin to the southwest, Kafr Dan to the west, Arranah, Jalamah and the Arab Israeli village of Muqeible to the north, Deir Ghazaleh to the northeast, and Beit Qad and Deir Abu Da'if to the east.

Government

Jenin municipality was established in 1886 under the Ottoman rule with no more than 80 voters and elections were made every 4 years until 1982 when the Israeli government took control over the municipality until 1995.[citation needed]
List of Jenin mayors:[45]

Municipal elections were held in Jenin on 15 December 2005. Six seats each were won by Hamas and the local coalition of Fatah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Jenin was one of several Palestinian cities where Hamas showed a dramatic growth in electoral support. [46] The mayor of Jenin is Hadem Rida.

Demographics

According to the 2007 census by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Jenin had a population of 39,004,[1] the Jenin Refugee Camp of 10,371[1] with 9,571 registered refugees[47] on 373 dunams (92 acres). Some 42.3% of the population of the camp was under the age of 15.

Public institutions and landmarks

The Khalil Suleiman Hospital is located in Jenin.
The city has a monument honoring German pilots shot down in Jenin during the First World War which incorporates an original wooden propeller.[56] An old British Mandate landing strip, Muqeible Airfield, is located in Jenin. The main and largest mosque of Jenin is the Fatima Khatun Mosque, built in 1566.
Education and culture
Arab American University in Jenin
The Arab American University is located in Jenin's vicinity.
Cinema Jenin is the largest movie theater in the area. The theater, which reopened in 2010 after a 23-year intermission, has indoor and outdoor screens, a film library and educational facilities.[57]Strings of Freedom is an orchestra in Jenin founded by an Israeli Arab, Wafaa Younis, who travels form her home in central Israel to teach music to the local youth.[58]

Since 2010, the Gilboa Regional Council has been working with the Jenin district authorities on the development of joint tourism projects.[59]

Capture of Jenin - Wikipedia

Wikipedia
This article is about the 1918 military operation. For the 1967 battle, see Six-Day War.

The Capture of Jenin occurred on 20 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September during the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. During the cavalry phase of the Battle of Sharon carried out by the Desert Mounted Corps, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, Australian Mounted Division attacked and captured the town of Jenin located on the southern edge of the Esdraelon Plain (also known as the Jezreel Valley and the plain of Armageddon) 40–50 miles (64–80 km) behind the front line in the Judean Hills. The Australian light horse captured about 2,000 prisoners, the main supply base and the ordnance depot of the Seventh and the Eighth Armies in and near the town. They also cut the main road from Nablus and a further 6,000 Ottoman Empire and German Empire prisoners, were subsequently captured as they attempted to retreat away from the Judean Hills.

The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) cavalry had ridden through a gap on the Mediterranean Sea coast, created by the infantry during the Battle of Tulkarm, to capture the two Ottoman armies' main lines of communication and supply north of the Judean Hills, while the infantry battles continued. On 20 September, the Desert Mounted Corps captured Afulah, Beisan and Jenin on the Esdrealon Plain. The next day the headquarters of the Seventh Army at Nablus, and the General Headquarters (GHQ) of the Yilderim Army Group at Nazareth, were both captured, while Haifa was captured two days later. During a subsequent early morning attack on 25 September, a German rearguard was captured during the Battle of Samakh, which ended the Battle of Sharon. During these operations the greater part of one Ottoman army was captured in the Judean Hills and at Jenin. These and other battles fought during the Battle of Megiddo including the Battle of Nablus and Third Transjordan attack, forced the retreating Ottoman Fourth, and remnants of the Seventh and the Eighth Armies, to the eastern side of the Jordan River. As they withdrew northwards towards Damascus they were pursued by the Desert Mounted Corps.

After the infantry established a gap in the Ottoman front line on the coast early on the morning of 19 September, the Australian Mounted Division's 3rd and 4th Light Horse Brigades (less the 5th Light Horse Brigade temporarily detached to the 60th Division) in reserve, followed the 4th Cavalry Division north on the Plain of Sharon and across the Mount Carmel Range, by the Musmus Pass, to Lejjun on the Esdrealon Plain. While the 4th Light Horse Brigade remained to garrison Lejjun and provide various guards for artillery, supplies, and corps headquarters before being ordered to capture Samakh, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade advanced to Jenin, where the 9th and 10th Light Horse captured the town after a brief fire fight. Subsequently, these two regiments captured some 8,000 Ottoman soldiers, who had been attempting to retreat northwards out of the Judean Hills, during the night of 20/21 September. The outnumbered Australian Light Horsemen were reinforced as quickly as possible, and the majority of the prisoners were marched back into holding camps, near Lejjun in the morning. The 3rd Light Horse Brigade remained in the area to garrison Jenin until they advanced to capture Tiberias on 25 September 1918, before participating in the pursuit to Damascus.

Background

Following the Capture of Jericho in February, the commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF), General Edmund Allenby ordered the occupation of the Jordan Valley. In March–April and April–May 1918, the First and the Second Transjordan attacks took place, while the front line across the Judean Hills to the Mediterranean Sea was defended. During this time, three-quarters of the British infantry and yeomanry cavalry regiments were redeployed to the Western Front to counter Ludendorff's Spring Offensive. They were replaced by British India Army infantry and cavalry which required a reorganisation. These newly arrived soldiers carried out a series of attacks on sections of the Ottoman front line in the Judean Hills during the summer months, as part of their training. These attacks including the Battle of Tell 'Asur and Action of Berukin in March and April, were aimed at pushing the front line to more advantageous positions in preparation for a major attack, and to acclimatise the newly arrived infantry. This fighting continued during the summer months. By the middle of September the consolidated EEF was once again ready for large-scale offensive operations.[1]
clip_image008
Situation at Zero hour 19 September

On 19 September, the Battle of Megiddo commenced with the XXI Corps (commanded by Lieutenant General Edward Bulfin), under cover of a creeping barrage, broke through the Ottoman front line to begin the Battle of Sharon. In the afternoon the XX Corps commanded by Lieutenant General Philip Chetwode began the Battle of Nablus, also supported by an artillery barrage. This offensive by the XX and XXI Corps, continued until midday on 21 September, when a successful flanking attack by the XXI Corps, combined with the XX Corps assault, forced the Seventh and the Eighth Armies, to disengage. The Seventh Army retreated from the Nablus area towards the Jordan River, crossing at the Jisr ed Damieh bridge before a rearguard at Nablus was captured. While the EEF infantry were fighting the Seventh and Eighth Armies in the Judean Hills, the Desert Mounted Corps commanded by the Australian Lieutenant General Harry Chauvel advanced through the gap created by the XXI Corps infantry on the morning of 19 September, to ride northwards and virtually encircle the Ottoman forces before they disengaged. The cavalry divisions captured Nazareth, Haifa, Afulah, Beisan, and Jenin before and Samakh and the Capture of Tiberias ended the Battle of Megiddo. During this time, Chaytor's Force (temporarily detached from Desert Mounted Corps) commanded by Major General Edward Chaytor, captured part of the retreating Ottoman and German column at the Capture of Jisr ed Damieh bridge over the Jordan River to cut off this line of retreat, during the Third Transjordan attack. To the east of the river, as the Ottoman Fourth Army began its retreat, Chaytor's Force advanced to capture Es Salt on 23 September and Amman on 25 September. Units of Chaytor's Force captured Amman after defeating a strong Fourth Army rearguard during the Second Battle of Amman.[2]

Prelude
clip_image009
Map showing EEF cavalry advances between 19 and 25 September 1918 to Nazareth, Afulah and Beisan, to Lajjun, Jenin, Jisr el Majami, and Samakh. Also shown are the three main lines of retreat, bombed by EEF aircraft, of the Seventh and Eighth Ottoman Armies and the retreat of the Asia Corps across the Jordan River

In preparation for the Battle of Megiddo, the Desert Mounted Corps, consisting of the 4th and 5th Cavalry Divisions, the Australian Mounted Division's 3rd and 4th Light Horse Brigades, concentrated near Ramleh, Ludd (Lydda), and Jaffa. Here dumps were formed of all surplus equipment, before the brigades and divisions moved up close behind the XXI Corps infantry divisions, near the Mediterranean coast.[3][4][5]

Each mounted division of about 3,500 troopers, consisted of three brigades, each brigade being made up of three regiments. Five of the six brigades of the 4th and 5th Cavalry Divisions, most of which had recently arrived from France, consisted of one British yeomanry regiment and two British Indian Army cavalry regiments, one of which was usually lancers, including the Indian Princely States' 15th Imperial Service Cavalry Brigade of three lancer regiments. Some of the cavalry regiments were armed in addition to their Lee–Enfield rifles, bayonets and swords, with lances. The Australian Mounted Division consisting of three light horse brigades, each with three regiments, containing a headquarters and three squadrons. With 522 men and horses in each regiment, they were armed in addition to their rifles and bayonets with swords.[6][7][8] The mounted divisions were supported by machine gun squadrons, three artillery batteries from the Royal Horse Artillery or the Honourable Artillery Company, and light armoured car units—two Light Armoured Motor Batteries, and two Light Car Patrols.[6][9]

By 17 September the 5th Cavalry Division, which would lead the advance, was deployed north-west of Sarona, eight miles (13 km) from the front line, with the 4th Cavalry Division in orange groves to the east, ten miles (16 km) from the front, and the Australian Mounted Division in reserve near Ramleh and Ludd, 17 miles (27 km) from the front line.[10][11] All movement, restricted to the night hours, culminated in a general move forward on the eve of battle during the night of 18/19 September, when the Australian Mounted Division moved up to Sarona. The supplies for the three divisions concentrated in the rear in divisional trains, in massed horse-drawn transport and on endless strings of camels, clogging every road in the area.[12][13] One iron ration and two days' special emergency ration for each man, and 21 pounds (9.5 kg) of grain for each horse, was carried on the trooper's horse, with an additional day's grain for each horse, carried on the first-line transport limbered wagons.[14]

Advance to Lejjun
clip_image010
Situation at 24:00 19/20 September 1918

During the initial cavalry advance up the coastal Plain of Sharon to Litera on the Nahr el Mefjir, the Desert Mounted Corps was to advance, "strictly disregarding any enemy forces" which were not on the path of their advance.[15] The mounted units were to cross the Mount Carmel Range from the coast to the Esdraelon Plain, through two passes. The 5th Cavalry Division took a northern and more difficult track from Sindiane to Abu Shusheh, 18 miles (29 km) south-east of Haifa, heading towards Nazareth, while the 4th Cavalry Division followed by the Australian Mounted Division in reserve crossed the mountain range by the historic southern Musmus Pass, (used by armies of the Egyptian Pharaoh Thothmes III in the 15th century BC, and the Roman Emperor Vespasian in the 1st century AD) to Lejjun before advancing to Afulah in the centre of the Esdrealon Plain.[4][16][17] This southern pass was about 14 miles (23 km) long and about 300 yards (270 m) wide, as it followed the Wadi Ara up the side of the Samarian Hills to 1,200 feet (370 m) above sea level, before falling to the plain.[17][18] During their advance, the Australian Mounted Division halted for ten minutes every hour, when saddle girths may have been loosened and a few minutes sleep snatched, with the reins looped around an arm jammed deeply into a pocket.[19]

The Esdrealon Plain, also known as the Jezreel Valley, and the Plain of Armageddon, stretches to the white houses of Nazareth in the foothills of the Galilean Hills on its northern edge 10 miles (16 km) away, to Jenin on its southern edge at the foot of the Judean Hills, through Afulah to Beisan on its eastern edge, close to the Jordan River.[17] On its western edge near Lejjun, at the mouth of the Musmus Pass, the ancient fortress of Megiddo on Tell al Mutesellim, dominates the Esdrealon Plain, across which Romans, Mongols, Arabs, Crusaders and the army of Napoleon had marched and fought.[20] The road and railway network, on which the German and Ottoman forces in Palestine depended for supplies and communications, crossed this plain via the two important communication hubs of Afulah and Beisan. (See Falls Map 21 Cavalry advances detail)[21][22] The railway passed from the plain into the Judean Hills south of Jenin, to wind through a narrow pass in the foothills before climbing to Messudieh Junction, where it again branched. One line ran westward to Tulkarm and Eighth Army headquarters, before turning south to the railhead to supply the Eight Army front line troops on the coastal plain, while the main railway line continued south-eastward to Nablus, and the Seventh Army headquarters.[23]

No defensive works of any kind had been identified on the Esdrealon Plain, or covering the approaches to it during aerial reconnaissance flights, except German troops known to garrison the commander of the Yildirim Army Group, General Otto Liman von Sanders' headquarters in Nazareth.[24][25] However, at 12:30 on 19 September, Liman von Sanders ordered the 13th Depot Regiment at Nazareth and military police, a total of six companies with 12 machine guns, to occupy Lejjun to defend the Musmus Pass against a possible attack.[25] In reserve, the 3rd and 4th Light Horse Brigades, Australian Mounted Division rode 28 miles (45 km) from the south-east of Jaffa at 08:45 to arrive at 01:45 at the Nahr Iskanderun, still on the coast, on the Plain of Sharon. The 3rd Light Horse Brigade and divisional troops of the Australian Mounted Division resumed their advance, passing through Kerkuk at 05:00 on 20 September, to move through the Musmus Pass before rest between 07:30 and 08:30 for breakfast. They arrived on the Esdrealon Plain at Lejjun at 11:45 on 20 September.[26][27] The 4th Light Horse Brigade had been detached to various escort and guard duties. The 4th Light Horse Regiment served as escort to the Desert Mounted Corps' headquarters, while the 11th Light Horse Regiment escorted divisional transport. The remainder of the brigade moved to Liktera at 03:00 on 20 September to organize and escort the transport convoy through the Musmus Pass. The transport of the Australian Mounted Division, and the Desert Mounted Corps, was consolidated by the brigade at Liktera, before moving at 14:00 to Kerkuk, where the 5th Cavalry Division's transport joined their column. At 16:30 the combined transport began moving through the Musmus Pass. 'A' echelon arrived at Lejjun at 21:00 on 20 September.[26][27]

Desert Mounted Corps objectives

According to Woodward, "[c]oncentration, surprise, and speed were key elements in the blitzkrieg warfare planned by Allenby."[28] The question of whether or not it was Allenby's plan has been raised in the literature.[29] According to Chauvel, Allenby had already decided on his plan before the Second Transjordan attack in April/May.[30] Victory at the Battle of Megiddo depended on the intense British Empire artillery barrage successfully covering the front line infantry attacks, and to drive a gap in the line so the cavalry could advance quickly to the Esdraelon Plain 50 miles (80 km) away during the first day of battle. Control of the skies was achieved and maintained by destroying German aircraft or forcing them to retire. Constant bombing raids by the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and Australian Flying Corps (AFC), were carried out on Afulah, Tulkarm and Nablus, which cut communications with the Yildirim Army Group commander, Liman von Sanders at Nazareth.[31][32]
After entering the Esdraelon Plain the Desert Mounted Corps was to ride as far as the Jordan River to encircle the Seventh and Eighth Ottoman Armies in the Judean Hills, where they were still busy fighting the XXI and the XX Corps. If the Esdraelon Plain could be quickly captured, the railways cut, the roads controlled, the lines of communication and retreat cut, two Ottoman armies could be captured.[31][33] The main objectives for 20 September were:
The 5th Cavalry Division's attack on Nazareth and Liman von Sanders' Yildirim Army Group's headquarters 70 miles (110 km) from Asurf, before clearing the plain to Afulah.[16]
The 4th Cavalry Division's capture of Afulah and Beisan and occupation of the bridges over the Jordan River—in particular, they were to hold or destroy the Jisr Mejamieh bridge 12 miles (19 km) north of Beisan, 97 miles (156 km) from the old front line.[16]
The Australian Mounted Division, in reserve, was to occupy Lejjun, while the 3rd Light Horse Brigade advanced to capture Jenin, 68 miles (109 km) from their starting point, cutting the main line of retreat for the German and Ottoman soldiers.[16] Nazareth has been mentioned as the place where the brigade was to "await the retreating Turks beginning to stream back through the Dothan pass."[34] Without communications, no combined action could be organized by the Ottoman forces, and the continuing EEF infantry attack forced the Ottoman Seventh and Eighth Armies to withdraw northwards from the Judean Hills. They withdrew along the main roads and railways from Tulkarm and Nablus through the Dothan Pass to Jenin. After capturing Jenin, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade was to wait for them.[35][36][37]

Battle

At 15:35 on 20 September, Major General Henry Hodgson, commanding the Australian Mounted Division, ordered Brigadier General Lachlan Wilson's 3rd Light Horse Brigade to capture Jenin. The 9th and 10th Light Horse Regiments, accompanied by the Nottinghamshire Battery (RHA), and four cars of the 11th Light Armoured Motor Battery moved out, leaving the 8th Light Horse Regiment for local protection at Lejjun.[38][39][40][Note 1] By 16:30, this force had left Lejjun to advancing at the fast rate of ten miles (16 km) per hour towards Jenin.[40][41] As they were approaching Kufr Adan, three miles (4.8 km) north-west of Jenin, a detached troop "rode down an enemy outpost" of between 1,200 and 1,800 German and Ottoman soldiers in an olive grove on the right flank. They had "immediately deployed" with swords drawn before charging "right into the Turks." The whole force was captured including several wounded.[38][41][42]
clip_image011
Albatros D.VA Serial 7416/17 with white/black/white stripe and intermediate type national insignia captured at Jenin

The 10th Light Horse Regiment with six machine guns of the 3rd Machine Gun Squadron formed the advanced guard. With the Afulah to Nazareth road already cut, one squadron of the advanced guard moved swiftly to control the road north from Jenin to Zir'in, on which a column of Ottoman soldiers was retiring. The remainder of the advanced guard rode directly towards Jenin, passing the railway station about 12 mile (0.80 km) on their right to cut the main road leading north, and the road east towards Beisan, with the 9th Light Horse Regiment following at the trot. Having cut the road and railway the 10th Light Horse Regiment turned south riding directly towards the village and railway station. They had galloped the 11 miles (18 km) from Lejjun in 70 minutes to arrive from the north-west. The Australian light horsemen charged into the town with drawn swords, to swiftly overwhelm all the German and Ottoman troops caught in the open. The 9th and the 10th Light Horse Regiments had attacked the town from two different directions, throwing the garrison into confusion. However, a "machine gun duel" between the 3rd Machine Gun Squadron and Germans, firing from windows and gardens on the light horsemen in the streets, developed. After about two hours of fighting, the Germans attempted to withdraw, when a number were killed and the remainder were captured.[38][41][43][44] A total of about 4,000 prisoners were captured, along with what the General Staff Headquarters of the Australian Mounted Division's War Diary described as, an "enormous amount of booty."[44][45]
clip_image012
Some of the captured Ottoman transport vehicles at Jenin

Jenin had been the main supply and ordnance depot of the Ottoman Seventh and Eighth Armies, and huge quantities of war material, including guns, machine guns, and ammunition, were captured. In nearby caves, large stores of German beer, wine, and canned food were found. Jenin had also been the main German air base, and 24 burnt aircraft were found on two aerodromes. At the railway station, locomotives and rolling stock were captured, along with a number of well-equipped workshops. Three hospitals were also captured.[46][47][48] An armed guard was placed on 120 cases of champagne (some of which was later distributed) and a "wagon load of bullion", worth nearly £20,000.[46][49] Some of the gold was later used to buy food and forage for the Desert Mounted Corps, when they had outdistanced their lines of communication, and were forced to requisition supplies from the local population.[46]
clip_image013
Transport destroyed by aerial bombing on the Nablus to Jenin road

After securing the town, the 9th and 10th Light Horse Regiments were deployed across the main line of retreat from the Judean Hills, at the outlet of the Dothan Pass, about one mile (1.6 km) south of Jenin, to wait for the expected retreating columns.[37][49] At 21:00 on 20 September, a burst of machine gun fire stopped a long column of retreating German and Ottoman soldiers, resulting in the capture of 2,800 prisoners and four guns.[49] During the night the light horsemen were to capture 8,000 prisoners who had retreated, in the face of EEF infantry attacks in the Judean Hills, along the good quality road from Nablus and Tulkarm, north towards Jenin and Damascus.[43][50][51]

Aftermath
clip_image014
Prisoners walking from Jenin to Lejjun escorted by 8th Light Horse Regiment

Outnumbered many times over, the 3rd Light Horse Brigade force patrolled 7,075 prisoners for the remainder of the night, with drawn swords until reinforcements began to arrive. The first were the 12th Light Armoured Motor Battery, which arrived at 04:15 on 21 September.[52][53][54][55][56] The 4th Light Horse Brigade left Lejjun at 04:30 on 21 September, to reinforce the 3rd Light Horse Brigade at Jenin. The brigade moved out less one squadron, but with the 4th and 11th Light Horse Regiments and a section of the Nottinghamshire Battery RHA, and/or the 19th Brigade RHA (less one battery and one section) to arrive at 06:00.[27][46][54][55] They found virtually the whole plain covered with prisoners, motor cars, lorries, wagons, animals, and stores "in an inextricable confusion."[46] The headquarters of the Australian Mounted Division arrived Jenin at 06:30 and, half an hour later, the 14th Cavalry Brigade (5th Cavalry Division) also arrived at Jenin to help manage the thousands of prisoners, but were able to return to their division at Afulah at 16:15 that afternoon.[54][55] Meanwhile, the 8th Light Horse Regiment (3rd Light Horse Brigade) also quickly followed after being relieved at Lejjun. They arrived at Jenin at 07:00 and two hours later departed, on their way back to Lejjun, escorting a convoy of about 7,000 prisoners. It took 10 hours to escort them to the prison compound, where a total of about 14,000 prisoners would eventually be held.[54][55][57]
clip_image015
Situation at 21:00 20 September 1918

More than 40 hours after the offensive began, substantial columns of the Seventh Ottoman Army were seen withdrawing northeastwards from Nablus, in the direction of the Jordan River where many would be captured by the 11th Cavalry Brigade of the 4th Cavalry Division.[58][59] Liman von Sanders, the commander of the Yildirim Army Group, had been surprised by the arrival of EEF cavalry at Nazareth in the early hours of 20 September. With no combat formations available to stop the EEF cavalry, he and his staff were forced to retire from Nazareth, driving via Tiberias, to reach Samakh in the late afternoon. Here he made arrangements to establish a strong rearguard garrison in what he planned would be the center of a rearguard line which was to stretch from Lake Hule to Irbid. Liman von Sanders drove on to Deraa on the morning of 21 September, where he received a report from the Ottoman Fourth Army, which he ordered to withdraw to the Deraa-to-Irbid line, without waiting for the southern Hejaz garrisons. He subsequently continued his journey back to Damascus.[60][61][62]

As a result of the capture of Jenin, all the main direct northern routes across the Esdrealon Plain, which the retreating Ottoman Seventh and Eighth Armies could have used, were now held by the Desert Mounted Corps. The 4th Cavalry Division controlled the Beisan area on the eastern edge of the plain after they captured both Afulah and Beisan, while the 5th Cavalry Division garrisoned the Afulah and Nazareth areas in the center and to the north, with the Australian Mounted Division holding Jenin in the south and patrolling the surrounding area.[51][63][64]

The 4th Cavalry Division had ridden 70 miles (110 km) (the first 20 miles (32 km) over sandy soil) and fought two actions, in 34 hours. The 13th Brigade of the 5th Cavalry Division covered 50 miles (80 km) in 22 hours. On its way to Jenin, the Australian Mounted Division rode 62 miles (100 km), with its 3rd Light Horse Brigade riding 51 miles (82 km) in less than 25 hours.[40][65] These cavalry divisions had started the advance with three days rations, so they were on their last day's supplies when their brigade transport and supply companies arrived. These divisional trains had been supplied from motor lorry convoys, one of which arrived at Jenin during 21 September.[66][67][68] The Australian Mounted Division motor ambulance transport, also rejoined their division at Jenin on 21 September, after the main road had been cleared.[67]

The 5th Light Horse Brigade (Australian Mounted Division), which had been attached to the infantry in the Judean Hills, was ordered to rejoin their division at Jenin.[69] The brigade doubled back to turn down the road to Jenin, arriving on dusk at 18:00 on 22 September to relieve the 3rd Light Horse Brigade, which then withdrew to Afulah.[70][71] The 4th Light Horse Brigade remained at Jenin until 22 September, when it was ordered back to Afulah, where they arrived at midday on 23 September.[27] The 5th Light Horse Brigade was still at Jenin on 25 September, the last day of the Battle of Megiddo, when it was ordered to send a regiment to reinforce the 4th Light Horse Brigade's pre-dawn attack on Samakh. They charged against a well prepared German and Ottoman rearguard during the Battle of Samakh.[70][71] Later in the day, one squadron of the 8th Light Horse Regiment, 3rd Light Horse Brigade approached Tiberias along the road from Nazareth, while a squadron from the 12th Light Horse Regiment, advanced north from Samakh. Together they captured Tiberias and 56 prisoners, half of which were German.[72][73][74] The next day Allenby held a corps commanders' conference at Jenin where he ordered the pursuit to Damascus. Infantry from the 7th Brigade of the 3rd (Lahore) Division were detached to the Desert Mounted Corps to relieve the mounted and cavalry divisions of their garrison duties. The infantry took over the captured areas, marching via Jenin, and Nazareth, to arrive at Samakh on 28 September.[75]

Notes
^ DiMarco claims the 3rd Light Horse Brigade had entered Jenin the previous evening. [DiMarco 2008 pp. 330–1]
En-gannim
En-gannim
(ĕn-găn`ĭm), in the Bible. 1 Town of Judah. 2 Levitical city, the modern Jenin
(West Bank), at the southeastern end of the plain of Esdraelon. An alternate form is Anem.

Umm al-Fahm - Wikipedia

Wikipedia · by Umm al-Fahm

Umm al-Fahm (Arabic: أمّ الفحم‎, Umm al-Faḥm; Hebrew: אֻם אל-פַחְם Umm el-Fahem) is a city located 20 kilometres (12 miles) northwest of Jenin in the Haifa District of Israel. In 2016 its population was 53,306,[1] nearly all of whom are Arab citizens of Israel.[3] The city is situated on the Umm al-Fahm mountain ridge, the highest point of which is Mount Iskander (522 metres (1,713 feet) above sea level), overlooking Wadi Ara. Umm al-Fahm is the social, cultural and economic center for residents of the Wadi Ara and Triangle regions.

Etymology

Umm al-Fahm means "Mother of Charcoal" in Arabic.[2] The village was surrounded by natural forests which were used to produce charcoal.[citation needed]

History

Several archaeological sites around the city date to the Iron Age II, as well as the Persian, Hellenistic, Roman, early Muslim and the Middle Ages.[4]

Mamluk era
In 1265 C.E. (663 H.), after Baybars won the territory from the Crusaders, the revenues from Umm al-Fahm were given to the Mamluk na'ib al-saltana (viceroy) of Syria, Jamal al-Din al-Najibi.[5][6]

Ottoman era
In 1517 the village was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire with the rest of Palestine, and in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Sara of the Liwa of Lajjun. It had a population of 24 households, all Muslim, and paid taxes on wheat, barley, summer crops, olive trees, occasional revenues, goats and/or beehives, and a press for olive oil or grape syrup.[7]

In 1838, Edward Robinson noted Umm al-Fahm on his travels,[8] and again in 1852, when he noted 20-30 Christian families in the village.[9]

In 1870, the French explorer Victor Guérin found it had eighteen hundred inhabitants and was surrounded by beautiful gardens.[10]

In 1872, Tyrwhitt-Drake noted that Umm al-Fahm was "divided into four quarters, El Jebarin, El Mahamin, El Maj’ahineh, and El Akbar’iyeh, each of which has its own sheikh."[11]

In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described Umm al-Fahm as having around 500 inhabitants, of which some 80 people were Christians. The place was well-built of stone, and the villagers were described as being very rich in cattle, goats and horses. It was the most important place in the area besides Jenin. The village was divided into four quarters, el Jebarin, el Mahamin, el Mejahineh, and el Akbariyeh, each quarter having its own sheikh. A maqam for a Sheikh Iskander was noted on a hill above.[12]

British Mandate era

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Umm al-Fahm had a population of 2,191; 2,183 Muslims and 8 Christians,[13] increasing in the 1931 census to 2443; 2427 Muslim and 16 Christians, in 488 inhabited houses.[14]

Umm al-Fahm was the birthplace of Palestinian Arab rebel leader Yusuf Hamdan. He died in Umm al-Fahm during a firefight with British troops.[15]

In 1945 the population was counted together with other Arab villages from the Wadi Ara region, the first two of which are today part of Umm al-Fahm, namely Aqqada, Ein Ibrahim, Khirbat el Buweishat, al-Murtafi'a, Lajjun, Mu'awiya, Musheirifa and Musmus. The total population was 5,490; 5,430 Muslims and 60 Christians,[16] with 77,242 dunams of land, according to the official land and population survey.[17] 4332 dunams were used for plantations and irrigable land, 44,586 dunams for cereals,[18] while 128 dunams were built-up (urban) land.[19]

State of Israel

See also: October 2000 events
WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. MILITARY GOVERNMENT. ARAB    CHIEF OF UM EL FAHM SIGNS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO ISRAELI     GOVERNMENT.
Signing oath of allegiance to the Israeli government, 1949

In 1948, there were 4,500 inhabitants, mostly farmers, in the Umm al-Fahm area. After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Lausanne Conference of 1949 awarded the entire Little Triangle to Israel, which wanted it for security purposes. On 20 May 1949, the city's leader signed an oath of allegiance to the State of Israel. Following its absorption into Israel, the town's population grew rapidly (see box). By 1960, Umm al-Fahm was given local council status by the Israeli government. Between 1965 and 1985, it was governed by elected councils. In 1985, Umm al-Fahm was granted official city status.[citation needed]

In October 2010, a group of 30 right-wing activists led by supporters of the banned Kach movement clashed with protesters in Umm al-Fahm.[20] Many policemen and protesters were injured in the fray.[21]

Jezreel Valley - Wikipedia

Wikipedia
For the ancient city, see Jezreel (city). For the kibbutz, see Yizre'el.
clip_image017
Agriculture in the Jezreel Valley
clip_image018
Jezreel Valley and Mount Tabor
clip_image019
Jezreel Valley

The Jezreel Valley (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (Arabic: مرج إبن عامر‎, translit. Marj Ibn Āmir) is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel. The Samarian highlands and Mount Gilboa border the valley from the south and to the north lie the Israeli cities Afula and Tiberias. To the west is the Mount Carmel range, and to the east is the Jordan Valley.

Etymology

The Jezreel Valley takes its name from the ancient city of Jezreel (known in Hebrew as Yizre'el; יזרעאל; known in Arabic as Zir'ēn, زرعين) which was located on a low hill overlooking the southern edge of the valley. The word Jezreel comes from the Hebrew, and means "God sows" or "El sows".[1] The phrase "valley of Jezreel" was sometimes used to refer to the central part of the valley, around the city of Jezreel, while the southwestern portion was known as the "valley of Megiddo", after the ancient city of Megiddo, which was located there. The area has been known as the Plain of Esdraelon (Esdraelon (Ἐσδρηλώμ) is the Koine Greek rendering of Jezreel).

Geography

The valley perhaps once acted as the channel by which the Dead Sea, located southeast of the valley, connected to the Mediterranean Sea. About two million years ago, as the land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan Rift Valley rose, this connection was lost, and periodic floods from the Mediterranean Sea ceased. This resulted in the Dead Sea no longer having a connection to the ocean, and over time, due to greater evaporation than precipitation plus surface water inflow, it has become heavily saline.

History

Biblical
clip_image020
Mosaic pavement of a 6th-century synagogue at Beit Alpha. It was discovered in 1928. Signs of the zodiac surround the central chariot of the Sun (a Greek motif), while the corners depict the 4 "turning points" ("tekufot") of the year, solstices and equinoxes, each named for the month in which it occurs—tequfah of Tishrei, tequfah of Tevet, tequfah of Nisan, tequfah of Tamuz.
clip_image021
View from Mount Gilboa

Biblical cities in the Jezreel Valley include Jezreel, Megiddo, Beit She'an Shimron and Afula. Archaeological excavations have indicated near continuous settlement from the Ghassulian culture of the Chalcolithic Age (c. 4500–3300 BCE) to the Ayyubid periods of the 11–13th centuries.[2]
The valley formed an easier route through the Levant than crossing the mountains on either side, and so saw a large amount of traffic, and was the site of many historic battles; there is a surviving detailed account of the earliest battle for it, the Battle of Megiddo, to prove that it was fought in the valley. Due to the surrounding terrain, Egyptian chariots were only able to travel from Egypt as far as the Jezreel valley and the valley north of Lake Huleh.

According to the Bible, the valley was the scene of a victory by the Israelites, led by Gideon, against the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the Children of the East,[3] but was later the location at which the Israelites, led by King Saul, were defeated by the Philistines.[4] According to textual scholars,[who?] the account of an ancient Philistine victory at Jezreel derives from the monarchial source, in contrast to the republican source, which places the Philistine victory against the Israelites at Mount Gilboa.[5][6] In Christian eschatology, the part of the valley on which the Battle of Megiddo was fought is believed to be the destined site of the penultimate battle between good and evil (the final battle taking place 1,000 years later in Jerusalem),[7][citation needed] known as Armageddon (a word derived from Megiddo).

According to 2Kings 9:1–10, after Jehu kills King Jehoram, he confronts Jezebel in Jezreel and urges her eunuchs to kill Jezebel by throwing her out of a window. They comply, tossing her out the window and leaving her in the street to be eaten by dogs. Only Jezebel's skull, feet, and hands remained.

Ottoman era

In 1852 the American writer Bayard Taylor traveled across the Jezreel Valley, which he described in his 1854 book 'The Lands of the Saracen; or, Pictures of Palestine, Asia Minor, Sicily and Spain' as: "one of the richest districts in the world."[8] Laurence Oliphant, who visited the 'Akko Sanjak' valley area in 1887, then a subprovince of the 'Beirut Wilayah',[9] wrote that the Valley of Esdraelon (Jezreel) was "a huge green lake of waving wheat, with its village-crowned mounds rising from it like islands; and it presents one of the most striking pictures of luxuriant fertility which it is possible to conceive."[10] In the early 1900, the Ottomans constructed the Jezreel Valley railway which ran along the entire length of the valley.
clip_image022
The tower house of the "Castle of Zir'in" in the 1880s

In the 1870s, the Sursock family of Beirut (present-day Lebanon) purchased the land from the Ottoman government for approximately £20,000. Between 1912 and 1925 the Sursock family (then under the French Mandate of Syria) sold their 80,000 acres (320 km²) of land in the Vale of Jezreel to the American Zion Commonwealth for about nearly three-quarters of a million pounds. The land was purchased by the Jewish organization as part of an effort to resettle Jews who inhabited the land, as well as others who came from distant lands[11] and the Jewish National Fund.[12]

British Mandate

After the land was sold to the American Zion Commonwealth, some of the Arab farmers who lived in nearby villages and had been working for the absentee landowners were evicted and given financial compensation or were provided with land elsewhere.[13] Despite the sale, some of the farmers refused to leave their land, as in Afula (El-Ful),[14] however the new owners decided that it would be inappropriate for these farmers to remain as tenants on land intended for Jewish labor. This was a commonplace feeling among segments of the Jewish population, part of a socialist ideology of the Yishuv, which included their working the land rather than being absentee landowners. British police had to be used to expel some and the dispossessed made their way to the coast to search for new work with most ending up in shanty towns on the edges of Jaffa and Haifa.[15]
clip_image023
Northern Jezreel Valley and Mount Carmel, seen from Haifa
.
Following the purchase of the land, the Jewish farmers created the first modern-day settlements, founded the modern day city of Afula and drained the swamps to enable further land development of areas that had been uninhabitable for centuries. The first moshav, Nahalal, was settled in this valley on 11 September 1921.

After the widespread Arab riots of 1929 in the then British Mandate of Palestine, the Hope Simpson Enquiry was appointed to seek causes and remedies for the instability. The Commission's findings in regard to "Government responsibility towards Arab cultivators", was that the Jewish authorities "have nothing with which to reproach themselves" in the purchase of the valley, noting the high prices paid and land occupants receiving compensation not legally bound. The responsibility of the Mandate Government for "soreness felt (among both effendi and fellahin) owing to the sale of large areas by the absentee Sursock family" and the displacement of Arab tenants; noted that, "the duty of the Administration of Palestine to ensure that the rights and position of the Arabs are not prejudiced by Jewish immigration. It is doubtful whether, in the matter of the Sursock lands, this Article of the Mandate received sufficient consideration."[16]

State of Israel

The Jezreel Valley is a green fertile plain covered with fields of wheat, watermelon, melon, oranges, white beans, cowpeas, chickpeas, green beans, cotton, sunflowers and corn, as well as grazing tracts for multitudes of sheep and cattle. The area is governed by the Jezreel Valley Regional Council. The Max Stern College of Emek Yizreel and the Emek Medical Center are located in the valley. In 2006, the Israeli Transportation Ministry and Jezreel Valley Regional Council announced plans to build an international airport near Megiddo but the project was shelved due to environmental objections.[17]
Archaeological excavations

Archaeological sites in the Jezreel Valley are currently excavated and coordinated by the Jezreel Valley Regional Project.[18] Excavations include the Ein el-Jarba site.

H3157
יִזְרְעֵאל
Yizreel (283b); from H2232 and H410; “God sows,” two Isr., also two cities in Isr., also a valley in N. Isr
יִזְרְעֵאל
yizre‛ê’l
BDB Definition:
Jezreel = “God sows”
1) a descendant of the father or founder of Etam of Judah (noun proper masculine)
2) first son of Hosea the prophet (noun proper masculine)
3) a city in the Nekeb of Judah (noun proper locative)
4) a city in Issachar on the northwest spur of Mount Gilboa (noun proper locative)
Part of Speech: see above in Definition
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: from H2232 and H410
Total KJV Occurrences: 36
jezreel, 36
Jos 15:56, Jos 17:16, Jos 19:18, Jdg 6:33, 1Sa 25:43, 1Sa 29:1, 1Sa 29:11, 2Sa 2:9, 2Sa 4:4, 1Ki 4:12, 1Ki 18:45-46 (2), 1Ki 21:1, 1Ki 21:23, 2Ki 8:29 (2), 2Ki 9:10, 2Ki 9:15-17 (4), 2Ki 9:30, 2Ki 9:36-37 (2), 2Ki 10:1, 2Ki 10:6-7 (2), 2Ki 10:11, 1Ch 4:3, 2Ch 22:6 (2), Hos 1:4-5 (3), Hos 1:11, Hos 2:22
H2232
זָרַע
zara (281b); a prim. root; to sow, scatter seed:–

NASB usage: conceive(1), gives birth(1), perpetuated(1), plant seed(1), scatter(1), set(1), sow(28), sowed(2), sower(2), sowing(2), sown(10), sows(2), unsown*(1), yielding(4).
זָרַע
zâra‛
BDB Definition:
1) to sow, scatter seed
1a) (Qal)
1a1) to sow
1a2) producing, yielding seed
1b) (Niphal)
1b1) to be sown
1b2) to become pregnant, be made pregnant
1c) (Pual) to be sown
1d) (Hiphil) to produce seed, yield seed
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by BDB/Strong’s Number: a primitive root
Same Word by TWOT Number: 582
Total KJV Occurrences: 56
sow, 28
Gen 47:23, Exo 23:10, Lev 19:19, Lev 25:3-4 (2), Lev 25:11, Lev 25:20, Lev 25:22, Lev 26:16, Deu 22:9, 2Ki 19:29, Job 31:8 (2), Psa 107:37, Psa 126:5, Ecc 11:4, Ecc 11:6, Isa 28:24, Isa 30:23, Isa 32:20, Isa 37:30, Jer 4:3, Jer 31:27, Jer 35:7, Hos 2:23, Hos 10:12, Mic 6:15, Zec 10:9
sown, 14
Exo 23:16, Lev 11:37, Deu 21:4, Deu 22:9, Deu 29:23, Jdg 6:3, Psa 97:11, Isa 40:24, Jer 2:2, Jer 12:13, Eze 36:9, Hos 8:7, Nah 1:14, Hag 1:6
yielding, 3
Gen 1:11-12 (2), Gen 1:29
sowed, 2
Gen 26:12, Jdg 9:45
sower, 2
Isa 55:10, Jer 50:16
soweth, 2
Pro 11:18, Pro 22:8
bearing, 1
Gen 1:29
conceive, 1
Num 5:28
conceived, 1
Lev 12:2
set, 1
Isa 17:10
sowedst, 1
Deu 11:10 (2)
Josh 15:56 and Jezreel and Jokdeam and Zanoah, NASB77
Josh 17:16 And the sons of Joseph said, “The hill country is not enough for us, and all the Canaanites who live in the valley land have chariots of iron, both those who are in Beth-shean and its towns, and those who are in the valley of Jezreel.” NASB77
Josh 19:18 And their territory was to Jezreel and [included] Chesulloth and Shunem, NASB77
Judg 6:33 Then all the Midianites and the Amalekites and the sons of the east assembled themselves; and they crossed over and camped in the valley of Jezreel. NASB77
1Sam 25:43 David had also taken Ahinoam of Jezreel, and they both became his wives. NASB77
1Sam 29:1 Now the Philistines gathered together all their armies to Aphek, while the Israelites were camping by the spring which is in Jezreel. NASB77
1Sam 29:11 So David arose early, he and his men, to depart in the morning, to return to the land of the Philistines. And the Philistines went up to Jezreel. NASB77
2Sam 2:9 And he made him king over Gilead, over the Ashurites, over Jezreel, over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, even over all Israel. NASB77
2Sam 4:4 Now Jonathan, Saul’s son, had a son crippled in his feet. He was five years old when the report of Saul and Jonathan came from Jezreel, and his nurse took him up and fled. And it happened that in her hurry to flee, he fell and became lame. And his name was Mephibosheth. NASB77
1Kgs 4:12 Baana the son of Ahilud, [in] Taanach and Megiddo, and all Beth-shean which is beside Zarethan below Jezreel, from Beth-shean to Abel-meholah as far as the other side of Jokmeam; NASB77
1Kgs 18:45 So it came about in a little while, that the sky grew black with clouds and wind, and there was a heavy shower. And Ahab rode and went to Jezreel. NASB77
1Kgs 18:46 Then the hand of the LORD was on Elijah, and he girded up his loins and outran Ahab to Jezreel. NASB77
1Kgs 21:1 Now it came about after these things, that Naboth the Jezreelite had a vineyard which [was] in Jezreel beside the palace of Ahab king of Samaria. NASB77
1Kgs 21:23 “And of Jezebel also has the LORD spoken, saying, ‘The dogs shall eat Jezebel in the district of Jezreel.’ NASB77
2Kgs 8:29 So King Joram returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which the Arameans had inflicted on him at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Aram. Then Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah went down to see Joram the son of Ahab in Jezreel because he was sick. NASB77
2Kgs 9:10 ‘And the dogs shall eat Jezebel in the territory of Jezreel, and none shall bury [her.]’” Then he opened the door and fled. NASB77
2Kgs 9:15 but King Joram had returned to Jezreel to be healed of the wounds which the Arameans had inflicted on him when he fought with Hazael king of Aram. So Jehu said, “If this is your mind, [then] let no one escape [or] leave the city to go tell [it] in Jezreel.” NASB77
2Kgs 9:16 Then Jehu rode in a chariot and went to Jezreel, for Joram was lying there. And Ahaziah king of Judah had come down to see Joram. NASB77
2Kgs 9:17 Now the watchman was standing on the tower in Jezreel and he saw the company of Jehu as he came, and said, “I see a company.” And Joram said, “Take a horseman and send him to meet them and let him say, ‘Is it peace?’” NASB77
2Kgs 9:30 When Jehu came to Jezreel, Jezebel heard [of it,] and she painted her eyes and adorned her head, and looked out the window. NASB77
2Kgs 9:36 Therefore they returned and told him. And he said, “This is the word of the LORD, which He spoke by His servant Elijah the Tishbite, saying, ‘In the property of Jezreel the dogs shall eat the flesh of Jezebel; NASB77
2Kgs 9:37 and the corpse of Jezebel shall be as dung on the face of the field in the property of Jezreel, so they cannot say, “This is Jezebel.”’” NASB77
2Kgs 10:1 Now Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters and sent [them] to Samaria, to the rulers of Jezreel, the elders, and to the guardians of [the children of] Ahab, saying, NASB77
2Kgs 10:6 Then he wrote a letter to them a second time saying, “If you are on my side, and you will listen to my voice, take the heads of the men, your master’s sons, and come to me at Jezreel tomorrow about this time.” Now the king’s sons, seventy persons, [were] with the great men of the city, [who] were rearing them. NASB77
2Kgs 10:7 And it came about when the letter came to them, that they took the king’s sons, and slaughtered [them,] seventy persons, and put their heads in baskets, and sent [them] to him at Jezreel. NASB77
2Kgs 10:11 So Jehu killed all who remained of the house of Ahab in Jezreel, and all his great men and his acquaintances and his priests, until he left him without a survivor. NASB77
1Chr 4:3 And these [were] the sons of Etam: Jezreel, Ishma, and Idbash; and the name of their sister [was] Hazzelelponi. NASB77
2Chr 22:6 So he returned to be healed in Jezreel of the wounds which they had inflicted on him at Ramah, when he fought against Hazael king of Aram. And Ahaziah, the son of Jehoram king of Judah, went down to see Jehoram the son of Ahab in Jezreel, because he was sick. NASB77
Hos 1:4 And the LORD said to him, “Name him Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will punish the house of Jehu for the bloodshed of Jezreel, and I will put an end to the kingdom of the house of Israel. NASB77
Hos 1:5 “And it will come about on that day, that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.” NASB77
Hos 1:11 And the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel will be gathered together, And they will appoint for themselves one leader, And they will go up from the land, For great will be the day of Jezreel. NASB77
Hos 2:22 And the earth will respond to the grain, to the new wine, and to the oil, And they will respond to Jezreel. NASB77
Josh 17:16 And the sons of Joseph said, “The hill country is not enough for us, and all the Canaanites who live in the valley land have chariots of iron, both those who are in Beth-shean and its towns, and those who are in the valley of Jezreel.” NASB77
Judg 6:33 Then all the Midianites and the Amalekites and the sons of the east assembled themselves; and they crossed over and camped in the valley of Jezreel. NASB77
1Sam 29:11 So David arose early, he and his men, to depart in the morning, to return to the land of the Philistines. And the Philistines went up to Jezreel. NASB77
2Sam 2:9 And he made him king over Gilead, over the Ashurites, over Jezreel, over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, even over all Israel. NASB77
1Kgs 21:23 “And of Jezebel also has the LORD spoken, saying, ‘The dogs shall eat Jezebel in the district of Jezreel.’ NASB77
2Kgs 9:10 ‘And the dogs shall eat Jezebel in the territory of Jezreel, and none shall bury [her.]’” Then he opened the door and fled. NASB77
2Kgs 9:36 Therefore they returned and told him. And he said, “This is the word of the LORD, which He spoke by His servant Elijah the Tishbite, saying, ‘In the property of Jezreel the dogs shall eat the flesh of Jezebel; NASB77
2Kgs 9:37 and the corpse of Jezebel shall be as dung on the face of the field in the property of Jezreel, so they cannot say, “This is Jezebel.”’” NASB77
2Kgs 10:1 Now Ahab had seventy sons in Samaria. And Jehu wrote letters and sent [them] to Samaria, to the rulers of Jezreel, the elders, and to the guardians of [the children of] Ahab, saying, NASB77
1Chr 4:3 And these [were] the sons of Etam: Jezreel, Ishma, and Idbash; and the name of their sister [was] Hazzelelponi. NASB77
Hos 1:4 And the LORD said to him, “Name him Jezreel; for yet a little while, and I will punish the house of Jehu for the bloodshed of Jezreel, and I will put an end to the kingdom of the house of Israel. NASB77
Hos 1:5 “And it will come about on that day, that I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.” NASB77
Hos 1:11 And the sons of Judah and the sons of Israel will be gathered together, And they will appoint for themselves one leader, And they will go up from the land, For great will be the day of Jezreel. NASB77
Hos 2:22 And the earth will respond to the grain, to the new wine, and to the oil, And they will respond to Jezreel. NASB77







































































































































































































































































































Popular posts from this blog

Forces From Him Will Arise: ​Asshur also has joined them they are the strong arm of the children of Lot

A Song, a Psalm of Asaph. O God, do not remain quiet; Do not be silent and, O God, do not be still.For, behold, Thine enemies make an uproar; And those who hate Thee have exalted themselves.They make shrewd plans against Thy people, And conspire together against Thy treasured ones.
They have said, “Come, and let us wipe them out as a nation, That the name of Israel be remembered no more.”For they have conspired together with one mind; Against Thee do they make a covenant:The tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites; Moab, and the Hagrites;Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; Philistia with the inhabitants of Tyre;Assyria also has joined with them; They have become a help to the children of Lot. Selah.Deal with them as with Midian, As with Sisera [and] Jabin, at the torrent of Kishon,Who were destroyed at En-dor, Who became as dung for the ground.Make their nobles like Oreb and Zeeb, And all their princes like Zebah and Zalmunna,Who said, “Let us possess for ourselves The pastures of God.”O my God, …

The Riddle of Phaethon’s Chariot Ride

Phaethon's Chariot Ride
By Brian Ingram

Backdating from previous Cosmic Catastrophes, the most well-known of these in the legendary accounts is Phaethon. Through the account given by the Roman poet Ovid who names one of the last Hyksos Pharaohs, in the Greek or Roman equivalent which translates to the Egyptian name, Apepi also known as Apophis.
Apepi (also Ipepi; Egyptian language ipp(i)) or Apophis (Greek Άποφις; regnal names Neb-khepesh-Re, A-qenen-Re and A-user-Re)

Was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period that was dominated by this foreign dynasty of rulers called the Hyksos. According to the Turin Canon of Kings, he ruled over the northern portion of Egypt for forty years, if he outlived his southern rival, Kamose, but not Ahmose I. Although his reign only entailed northern Egypt, Apepi was dominant over most of Egypt during the early portion of his reign, and traded peacefully with the native, Theban Seventeenth dynasty…